intro phil - argument analysis (-) (1).pptx

intro phil - argument analysis (-) (1).pptx - Argument...

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Argument analysis William A. Bauer Bauer - Argument analysis 1
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The importance of logic “Men are apt to mistake the strength of their feeling for the strength of their argument. The heated mind resents the chill touch and relentless scrutiny of logic.” – William E. Gladstone (1809-1898) Progress in philosophy and other subjects requires logic But what is logic, and why is it important? Bauer - Argument analysis 2
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Statements v. sentences A statement is a sentence, or sentence component, which is either true or false Statements are the basic units or ‘atoms’ of reasoning Statements are not commands or questions A single sentence may contain more than one statement Example 1: Roses are red and violets are blue .” Example 2: “Either gravity works or we will float ; we won’t float ; so gravity works .” Which of the examples, if either, is an argument? Bauer - Argument analysis 3
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Arguments: the basics Argument : set of statements where one or more of the statements, i.e. premises , are claimed to provide support for the truth of another statement, i.e. the conclusion Example (P1) If something is human, it is mortal. (P2) Socrates is human. (C1) Thus, Socrates is mortal. An argument is in standard form if written premise by premise, with a line immediately before the conclusion Bauer - Argument analysis 4
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Arguments: the basics These two arguments are logically equivalent (they can be exchanged in arguments without loss of meaning): (P1) All humans are mortal. (P1*) If something is human, it is mortal. (P2) Socrates is human. (P2) Socrates is human. (C1) Thus, Socrates is mortal. (C1) Thus, Socrates is mortal. (P1) is a categorical statement (“all”, “no,” or “some X are…”). Categorical statements like (P1) can be turned into conditional statements like (P1*): “All X are Y” = “If X, then Y” Bauer - Argument analysis 5
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Is a given passage an argument? A passage needs at least two statements to make an argument Does the author claim or imply that some statements provide support for the truth of another? If yes, then it’s an argument If no, then it’s not an argument Bauer - Argument analysis 6
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Premise & conclusion indicators Common premise indicators since because for given that the reason is that as indicated by on the supposition that assuming that inasmuch as as shown by Common conclusion indicators thus so therefore hence implies that consequently as a result entails that accordingly shows that suggests that proves that Bauer - Argument analysis 7
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Diagramming arguments with
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  • Fall '16
  • Jon Newton
  • Logic, William A. Bauer

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