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Unformatted text preview: Exam 2 Objectives -­‐ Chem 109 Exam 2 will cover material: from class during the period Sept. 26 – Oct. 21.; from the textbook Chapter 6 Sections 6-­‐11, Chapter 7 Sections 1-­‐7, Chapter 9 Section 1, Chapter 10 Sections 1-­‐7; Chapter 1 Section 14, Chapter 11 Sections 103, Chapter 18, Sections 1-­‐5; from laboratory exercises Molecular Structures, Esters and Amides, Structures of Biomolecules and Neutron Activation of Silver; and from the biomolecules tutorials. Basic Objectives • Know the definition of bond length and bond energy • Be able to calculate formal charge and oxidation number for each atom in a molecule • Determine the shape of a molecule from its Lewis dot structure. • Determine the hybridization and geometry at an atom in a molecule. • Identify σ-­‐ and π-­‐bonds in a molecule. • Describe the basic types of non-­‐covalent (intermolecular) forces and their relative strengths. • Know the relationship between molecular size (number of electrons) and the boiling and melting points of a substance. • Know the three electronegative atoms that form strong hydrogen bonds. • Identify the chiral carbon atoms in an organic molecule. • Identify or draw the organic functional groups: alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids, esters, amines, and amides. • Identify primary, secondary, or tertiary alcohols. • Know the definitions of oxidation, esterification, condensation, hydrolysis, and addition reactions as applied to simple organic molecules. • Know the fundamental structures of biomolecules (proteins, fats, carbohydrates, DNA and RNA) and of their component parts. • Know the chemical structures of some common plastics, for example, polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene. • Define primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structure as related to proteins. • Identify in a protein these basic secondary structures: α-­‐helix and β-­‐sheet. • Know the factors that affect rates of chemical reactions • Determine a rate law from a set of initial-­‐rate data for a reaction. • Determine the order of a reaction from a rate law. • Determine the order of a reaction from an appropriate integrated rate law plot. Competency Objectives • Be able to predict relative lengths and strengths of bonds based on atom size and bond order. • From a Lewis dot structure determine formal charge and oxidation number for each atom • Use formal charge to evaluate Lewis dot structures for a molecule. • Predict whether a molecule is polar based on its shape and the polarity of the bonds. • Identify all resonance structures for compounds in which multiple equivalent dot structures can be drawn, and explain if there are predominant resonance structures. • Be able to apply the idea of bond order (number of bonds) to cases with two or more resonance structures • Identify molecules containing atoms that do not obey the octet rule; i.e., those that allow expansion of the octet or those that are content with less than an octet. • Use VSEPR theory to predict molecular shapes, including the shapes around atoms in molecules with more than a single central atom. • Predict any deviation of bond angles from their ideal size due to the presence of lone pairs and multiple bonds. • Explain multiple bonding in terms of the overlap of atomic orbitals, and formation of σ-­‐and π-­‐bonds. • Describe the bonding in an organic molecule using dot structures, VSEPR theory, and pictures of overlapping hybridized and unhybridized orbitals. • Predict the type and strength of the intermolecular forces in a given substance. • Describe the molecular-­‐level structure of a given substance and the forces that hold the molecules together. • Predict trends in properties of a substance from the type of forces between atoms or molecules. • Predict the organic product of an oxidation reaction of an alcohol. • Predict the products of a condensation reaction. • Predict the products of a hydrolysis reaction. • Identify the monomer or monomers of which a polymer is composed. • Predict the structure of an addition or condensation polymer formed from given monomer units. • Interpret a set of data, using initial rate method or the integrated rate law method, to identify the rate law for a chemical reaction. • Use the rate law to predict how changes in concentration of the different reagents will affect the rate of the reaction and the concentrations of reactants or products. Mastery Objectives • Be able to relate chemical bonding to chemical structure and vice versa; from a molecular formula, be able to predict structure, types of intermolecular forces, and whether or not different kinds of isomers are possible. • Understand the relationship between molecular structure, intermolecular forces and physical properties. Given data on trends in physical properties, rationalize these data in terms of the intermolecular forces involved. Express your understanding in chemically precise language: chemically reasonable explanations and correct definitions with no incorrect or illogical statements. • Understand the chemical composition of a variety of synthetic and natural polymers. Given monomers, predict the structure of the resulting polymer. Predict based on the nature of the functional groups on the polymer molecules, what types of non-­‐covalent forces will occur in the polymeric substance, and relate those forces to the properties of the material. • Design a kinetics experiment to determine a rate law and use the rate law to predict reaction rates and/or concentrations of reactants and products after a given time. • Be able to describe the forces that lead to secondary and tertiary structure in proteins, and use these ideas to predict which portions of a protein chain are likely to be associated with aqueous and with nonpolar surroundings. • Be able to describe the structure of DNA, the groups of atoms (such as phosphate) that make up the overall structure, how those groups of atoms are arranged in 3D space, and the way the overall structure allows for replication of the DNA molecule and storage of genetic information. ...
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  • Fall '07
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