Exam 3 Review Guide.docx - Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide...

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Sociology Exam 3 Study Guide Family 1. Trends in age of first marriage o Males – 29 o Females – 27 o Increasing since the 1950s 2. Trends in nuclear and extended families o Nuclear family – a family organized of one or two parents and their children o Extended families – a family comprised of parents and children as well as other kin 3. Endogamy versus exogamy o Endogamy – marriage between people of the same social category Social forces that indirectly limits marriage prospects to others of the same age, race, religion, and social class Marriage markets tend to enforce endogamy – act as a filter for potential partners o Exogamy – marriage between people of different social categories 4. What are marriage markets? o Marriage markets – public place where parents list advertisements for their children with the aim of finding a marital spouse for them; people then congregate there and read the listings, often in the hope of finding a marital match 5. Changes in marriage patterns – common law, arranged marriages, and romantic love-based marriage o Common law marriages – Marriage by cohabitation Examples: majority of marriages in England & Protestant Europe until the 18 th century; originally didn’t even need to have a witness o Arranged marriages – Alliances between two extended families of similar social standing and usually involve in exchange of not just children but also of wealth and favors Dowry – money or goods that the women’s family brings to the husband and the husband’s family o Romantic Love marriage – based on mutual affection, sexual attraction Recent phenomenon 6. Why did romantic love-based marriages develop? o Romantic-based marriage is a product of industrial capitalism/urbanization Social instability brought about by the growth of capitalism changed marriages Industrial economy based on wage labor replaced the agricultural economy and with it the “workmates” business partnership role of marriage People also became less connected to and dependent on parents and relatives and to love, not family obligations, became the basis for marriage 7. Polygamy and patrilineage and its effect on women o Monogamy – marriage that unites two partners o Polygamy – marriage that unties a person with two or more spouses In many places, men historically were allowed to marry as many women as they could financially support, but women were not allowed to marry more than one man o Patrilineal – kinship is traced through the father; children take on the names of the father and property flows from fathers to sons One of the reasons for the enforcement of women’s sexuality but not men’s – men needed to know their blood heir 8. Statistics regarding women and formal labor force participation o 57% of adult women are in the formal labor force o 70% of women 20-65 o 70% of women have Bachelor’s degrees o 75% of mothers with children ages 6-17 are in the workforce 9. Research on working mothers o
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