Marine Vertebrates Final Exam Class Notes.docx

Marine Vertebrates Final Exam Class Notes.docx - Class...

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Class Notes for Marine Verts Final Exam 1. Amniotes – a. All amniotes have internal fertilization b. Two major divisions – mammals & reptiles c. Egg yolk produced in ovary d. Oviduct produces albumin, twisting chord i. Shell gland produces shell around all of this stuff e. Then go to uterus f. BIG difference is sperm has to travel up oviduct to fertilize egg g. Embryo grows yolk sac – endoderm & mesoderm tissue 2. Lepidosaurs – a. Hydrophiidae (sea snakes) & Lauticaudidae i. Evolved from snakes called Elapidae (cobras) 1. Elapidae have permanently erect fangs & toxin 2. Toxin shuts down nervous system 3. Eat cold-blooded prey – slow metabolic rates & takes a long time for hemotoxin a. Neurotoxin quick ii. Feed on fish – bite prey, prey dies, swallow dead prey 1. Neurotoxin immobilizes prey before death iii. Live in warm water – Pacific & Indian Oceans iv. Tetrapods need to get rid of excess salt * v. Marine iguanas blow salt out of their nose vi. Sea snakes “drool” – thick saliva excretion vii. Sea snakes highly evolved for living in water 1. Same size scales 2. Laterally compressed 3. Nostrils have valves & on top part of face viii. Lauticaudidae come onto land to lay eggs 1. Come onto land in droves ix. Hydrophiidae give live birth in water 3. Map Sense vs. Compass Sense— a. Need to know two things to orient/navigate self in middle of the ocean i. Map sense & compass sense b. Turtles do this in two ways – electromagnetic cues & geomagnetic cues 4. Archosauria – a. Flying is expensive b. Wrist/hand bares heavily modified reduced hands? c. Long flexible neck d. Clavicle is fused together into a wishbone e. Sternum is huge f. Lumbar vertebrae is fused together – sinsacrum g. Tail is caudal vertebrae h. Pectoral muscle i. Anatidae (ducks, geese, swans) i. Swans are the largest ii. Mute swan iii. Aggressive to other birds j. Haematopodidae (oystercatchers) i. Near-shore birds, long beaks, large eggs, wander around tide ii. Long-billed curlew-long beaks
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All marine tetrapods are derived from a terrestrial ancestor Amphibians = forced respiration Everything else = aspiration Euryapsids single dorsal fenestration (all extinct) o Fenestrations/holes in skull to break things into groups o Most plesiomorphic condition = anapsid = no holes in dermal roof of skull o More derived condition = two holes in dermal roof of skull o Synapsid = one lateral fenestration of dermal roof of skull mammals o Turtles = two fenestrations closed in Mechanisms for organizing things based on fenestration in skull (fenestrations have to do with muscle attachment and how you utilize your jaw) Longer vertebral column = more flexible Marine adapted tetrapods (ichthyosaurs) o Longer vertebral column, large eyes o Extra bones in fingers = hyperphalangy o Extra digits in fingers = polydactyly o Increase length of fin to make swimming more advantageous o Give birth to live young o All extinct Lepidosaurs = lizards & snakes (common trait: laterally compressed tail?) Marine iguana (Amblyrhynchus) o
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  • Spring '18
  • Pinniped, Green turtle, Galapagos Islands, Leatherback turtle, Sea turtle, Hawksbill turtle

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