Chapt 15_Benthic Envir plus chap 16 2018.doc

Chapt 15_Benthic Envir plus chap 16 2018.doc - OCE 2001...

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OCE 2001 Exam 4 1 CHAPTER 15 Animals of the Benthic Environment and Chapter 16 - Climate Change pgs 536 (bottom)- 539 (top), 542-547 and Afterword pg 550-553 Distribution of benthic organisms More benthic productivity beneath areas of high surface primary productivity 98% of marine species , mainly on continental shelves Affected by surface ocean currents Biomass matches surface chlorophyll distribution. Benthic organism diversity (figure 12.7, pg. 382) Benthic organisms on rocky shores Many Epifauna – attached to substrate (e.g., barnacles) Sessile – unable to move as adults Move on/over seafloor (e.g., crabs, snails) Moderate diversity of species – bottom structure increases diversity Greatest animal diversity at tropical latitudes Greatest algae diversity at mid-latitudes Littoral zone – between average high and low tides Harsh conditions organisms must adapt to Drying out during low tide Strong wave activity Protection from predators Changing conditions –temperature, salinity, oxygen content Some species sessile – permanently attached to rocks Obtaining food Competition for space to attach Rock shore zonation Intertidal Zonation – (fig. 15.2 and table 15.1) Spray zone (supratidal) – wet only from wave activity or during storms Organisms must avoid drying out Many animals have shells Few species of marine algae Enduring spray zone a method of avoiding predators High tide zone Avoid drying out so animals have shells Marine algae—rock weeds with thick cell walls Middle tide zone More types of marine algae Crabs and mollusks Echinoderms – sea stars and urchins Soft-bodied animals Sea Anemones Cnidaria – related to jellyfish and coral Nematocysts for capturing prey and stinging predators Pull into tube-shaped bodies above water Low tide zone Abundant algae Many animals hidden by sea weed and sea grass Crabs abundant in all intertidal zones Tide pools Variety of algae Soft-body and shelled animals – snails, starfish, sea urchins crabs and sea slugs Euryhaline - Organisms adapted to extreme changes caused by evaporation
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OCE 2001 Exam 4 2 Physical Environment of Sediment-Covered Shores Energy level along shore depends on Wave strength Longshore current strength Wave/current energy determines habitat… Coarse boulder beaches Sand beaches Salt marshes and mud flats Tidal flats - fine-grained, more stable than high energy sandy beach Similar intertidal zones (figure 15.8) Supralittoral – backshore and sand dunes Burrowing crabs and dune plants High tide zone Sand worms and ghost crabs Middle tide zone Clams (coquinas in FL), burrowing crabs (sand fleas), beach hoppers Low tide zone Sea stars, sand dollars, horseshoe crabs, bivalves Sublittoral zone – below low tide line but shallow water Sea cucumbers, crabs, small fish, snails
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