Chapt 10_coast 2018.doc - OCE 2001 Notes for Exam 3 Chapter...

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OCE 2001 Notes for Exam 3 1 Chapter 10 – Beaches, Shoreline Processes, and The Coastal Ocean Chapter 16 – Rising sea level, pg 534-536, 539-540 Overview Coastal region constantly changes Change primarily due to waves Erosion wearing away Deposition building up Many people live in coastal regions 80% of people in U.S. live within easy access of coast Coastal regions - Terminology Shore – between lowest tide and highest elevation affected by storm waves Shore Profile o Shoreline – waters edge moves up and down with tides o Backshore – above high tide line o Foreshore – between high and low tides o Nearshore – beyond low tide o Offshore – beyond low tide breaker line Beach Profile - Study figure 10.1 on page 306 for the exam figure Beaches - wave-worked coastal sediment deposits Created by sediment sources (base of cliffs or near river mouths) or by waves and currents that replace materials moved out into deeper waters with sand. Wave-cut bench – flat eroded bedrock (beneath beach) Recreational beach – above the shoreline Berm – above high tide at base of cliff or dune (dry) Beach face – exposed - berm to shoreline (wet) Longshore bars – sand bar paralleling coast Longshore trough- slightly deeper water inshore from bars Composition of beaches – usually derived from local sediments Beaches have the best known sediment deposits because they are so extensively used. May be coarse or fine depending on wave energy Boulders from local cliffs Lithogenous (formed by eroded rock) - Quartz sand – most beaches dominated by highly stable mineral grains such as quartz (a form of silica)- eroded granite (continental bedrock) Hawaiian black sand - results from the erosion of basaltic lava. Biogenous common in the tropics - broken carbonate shells and skeletons of marine organisms dominate the beaches (white or pink). - Coral rubble, shell hash, coquina, foraminifera, etc U.S. Atlantic coast - sand beaches and sandy barrier islands border most of the coastline Pacific Coast - beaches are usually small and restricted to low-lying areas. Sand movement along the beach Beach - actually a sediment deposit in motion.
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OCE 2001 Notes for Exam 3 2 Most motion, large segments of the beach, occurs during major storms. Higher parts protected by plants may only move during exceptionally powerful storms. Perpendicular to shoreline (toward and away) Parallel to shoreline (up-coast or down-coast) Longshore drift of sand – caused by Longshore currents Swash and backwash Swash - After wave breaks, up rush of water on beach Sediment moved toward land Backwash - Water returns to ocean Sediment moved away from shore Wave activity affects deposits Summertime beach – particularly in northern U.S. - light wave activity Swash dominates sediment moved toward shore Wider beach Fair weather Wintertime beach - heavy wave activity Backwash dominates
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  • Spring '14
  • Erosion, Coastal geography, Tide

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