Chapt 14-Pelagic Env 2016(1).doc

Chapt 14-Pelagic Env 2016(1).doc - OCE 2001 Exam 4 CHAPTER...

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OCE 2001 Exam 4 1 CHAPTER 14 - Animals of the Pelagic Environment Overview Pelagic animals live suspended in open water Must remain near food source Larger than phytoplankton making them denser and more prone to sinking Possess a variety of methods for remaining in the water column What kinds of animals are found in the pelagic environment? How are Marine Organisms able to stay above the ocean floor? Adaptions to avoid sinking Increased buoyancy Gas containers Rigid air-filled container or shells (internal or external) – Nautilus, Spirula , squid, cuttle fish Swim bladders in fish Air added through gills or blood % oxygen increases with depth Not found in sharks Not found in fish below 7000 m (fat deposits aid in floating) Microscopic zooplankton have tests (shells) that contain air Tests – shells of some microscopic plankton Radiolarians –silica shells Foraminifers – calcium carbonate shells Copepods – chitinous shells Macroscopic zooplankton may have oil droplets – neutral buoyancy Krill Fish eggs Increased resistance - appendages Numerous Flat - increased surface area Bodies that are less dense or neutral to seawater - gelatinous Jellyfish, tunicates, comb jellies etc. Zooplankton Diversity – floaters Examples on Pg. 380, fig 12.4 (Chap 12) Microscopic zooplankton – larger than phytoplankton and very abundant Many are herbivores - eat phytoplankton One celled zooplankton – amoeba-like with shells Radiolarians – protozoans with silica shells Foraminifers – protozoans with calcium carbonate shells Small crustaceans - Arthropods Copepods (“oar foot”) 7500+ species May be herbivores or carnivores Most abundant zooplankton group – food source for many other organisms take the place of insects in the marine environment Macroscopic zooplankton – (larger) Most are predators Krill – small, shrimp-like, often red, eat phytoplankton Very abundant in polar oceans Food of many organisms, including some whales Jelly fish - Cnidarians
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OCE 2001 Exam 4 2 Bodies that are less dense or neutral to seawater Capture prey with stinging nematocysts Portuguese man-of-war (Hydrozoan) gas-filled float No propulsion – at mercy of current and wind Siphonophores – (deep sea) Jellyfish (Scyphozoan) soft low-density bodies Jellyfish – swimming medusa Swim - rhythmic pulses jet water from the cavity beneath the bell Other various including pelagic tunicates, pelagic snails, arrow worms, comb jellies (Ctenophores), Larvaceans, salps etc. Nekton Diversity – stay in water column by active swimming 1. Squid and octopus (Mollusks) Jet propulsion - swim by trapping water and expelling it Also swim by using fins or tentacles 2. Bony Fish - (Osteichthyes) - Bony skeleton – typical fish swim by curving body from front to back Gills covered by operculum Pelagic fish – often laterally (side to side) flattened
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  • Spring '14
  • Shark, Cetacea,  Microscopic zooplankton

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