3 Genetics.pptx - UNIT 3 Genetics 3.1 Cell Biology and DNA...

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UNIT 3: Genetics 3.1 Cell Biology and DNA
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____ Cells Earth was formed ≈ 4.6 billion years ago Life first appeared ≈ 3.8 billion years ago Single-celled organism
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__________ Cells 1.5 billion years ago Contain a nucleus – where DNA is kept
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Multicellular (plant and animal) Life 600 million years ago
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Basic Animal Cell Structure ___________ _______ endoplasmic reticulum plasma membrane cytoplasm ribosomes
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Somatic Cells Sex Cells ( ______ ) Most abundant E.g. blood cells, nerves cells, muscles cells – essentially all body tissues Produced in testes or ovaries Transmit genetic blueprints
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Basic DNA Structure double helix James Crick and Francis Watson Rosalind Franklin
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1 sugar 1 phosphate 1 nitrogenous base = a ________ Nitrogenous Bases: Adenine (A) Guanine (G) Thymine (T) Cytocine (C) 8 ________(bp)
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nuDNA and mtDNA Nucleus guards our genetic code Contains nuDNA inherited from both parents Only two copies per cell Lower mutation rate Mitochondria the metabolic powerhouses of our cell Likely originated from bacteria living as endosymbionts within the eukaryote Contain mtDNA inherited ONLY from the mother Contains 100-1000 copies per cell Higher mutation rate 9
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Number of Base Pairs: Our mtDNA only has 16,569 base pairs A single copy of our nuDNA has 3.2 billion base pairs (and we have 2 copies in every somatic cell in our body) = number of letters in 600 copies of: = number of letters in 1300 copies of:
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… and set sequences of the base pairs in DNA code for specific proteins. DNA  Amino acids ______  hair/muscle/blood/ skin/bone/organs…etc What’s the deal with base pairs?
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RNA Structurally almost identical to DNA, except instead of the base thymine (T), the base uracil (U) binds with adenine (A). Two important types of RNA: _____________________ : help convey genetic information from DNA to the ribosome ___________________ : decodes mRNA sequences and help carrying amino acids to the site of protein synthesis 12
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Protein synthesis (step by step) Polymerase unzips the two strands of DNA (in nucleus) A complementary mRNA molecular is formed at a chosen site during a process called ____________ . mRNA travels to the ribosome tRNA brings in the right ingredients during a process called ___________ . Protein is made! 13
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E.g. Lysine Lysine is an essential amino acid Used for preventing cold and treating cold sores 14 T T T T T C A A A A A G Codon mRNA DNA
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E.g. Lysine (contd.) 15 U U U U U C A A A A A G mRNA tRNA
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E.g. Lysine (contd.) 16 U U U U U C tRNA
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E.g. collagen A type of protein found all over our body Made up connective tissues such as skin, hair, and nails. _______________ made up of a strings of amino acids linked together Type 1 collagen made of three coiled chains, each chain contains precisely 1050 amino acids Lots of glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline. 17
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Protein Synthesis (YouTube Video) Where is protein being synthesized?
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