Chemistry Chapter 4 Part 3, Chapter 5, Chapter 14 pt 1.docx

Chemistry Chapter 4 Part 3, Chapter 5, Chapter 14 pt 1.docx...

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Chemistry Chapter 4 Part 3 1.5 Concentrations of Solutions - Concentration : the amount of solute dissolved in a given quantity of solvent or quantity of solution - Molarity (M): moles solute/volume of solution in liters Concentrations of Electrolytes: - When an ionic compound dissolves, the relative concentrations of the ions in the solution depend on the chemical formula of the compound and the moles of ions formed Interconverting Molarity, Moles, and Volume - If you know any of the 2/3 values in the molarity equation, the third can be found
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Dilution: process of preparing a less concentrated solution from a more concentrated one by adding a solvent M conc x V conc = M dil x V dil To create a solution with a known molarity: - Weight out mass of solute - Add solute to volumetric flask - Add solvent to the line on the neck of the flask 1.6 Solution Stoichiometry and Chemical Analysis - If solute concentration is known, using molarity and volume, the # of moles can be determined Titrations: combining a solution where the solute concentration is not known with a reagent solution of known concentration (standard solution)
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- just enough SS is added to completely react with the solute in the solution of unknown concentration - equivalence point: point at which stoichimetrically equivalent quantities are brought together - at the equivalence point, indicators can be used to determine when it is reached - Indicators: o Phenol red is Yellow in acidic solution Orange in neutral solutions Red/pink in a basic solution
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Chapter 5 – Thermodynamics: the study of energy and its transformations Thermochemistry : the study of the relationships between chemical reactions and energy changes that involve heat Energy : the capacity to do work or transfer heat Work : the energy used to cause an object to move against a force Heat : the energy used to cause the temp. of an object to increase Force : any push or pull exerted on an object W = f x d The First Law of Thermodynamics : energy cannot be created or destroyed Energy: - Can be transferred as work or heat - Heat : energy transferred from a hotter object to a colder one - Kinetic vs Potential
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