Chapter 14 Part 2.docx

# Chapter 14 Part 2.docx - Chapter 14 Part 2 3 Chemical...

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Chapter 14 Part 2 & 3 Chemical Kinetics Instantaneous Rate: Rate of a rxn at a particular instant during the reaction determined from the slope of the tangent line through the given time point on a graph. Concentration and Rate: - Determining the initial rate through the initial concentrations - Rate Law: equation that relates the reaction rate to the concentrations of reactants

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- aA + bB cC + dD ; Rate = k[A] m [B] n - for gas-phase reactants, use P A instead of [A] - Rate Constant (k): dependent on temperature - Reaction Orders (m & n): power to which the concentration of a reactant is raised in a rate law - Overall Reaction Order: sum of the orders with respect to each reactant represented in the rate law - Exponents in rate laws express how rate is affected by each reactant concentration - Reaction orders must be determined experimentally - Units of the rate constant depend on the overall reaction order for the rate law - M -1 s -1 = units for rate constant - You can use the response of the reaction rate to a change in initial concentration to determine reaction order First Order Reactions: - One whose rate depends on the concentration of a single reactant raised to the first power - Ex) Rate = - Delta [A]/Delta t = k[A] - Differential rate laws: express how rate depends on concentration - Integrated 1 st order Rate Law: for any 1 st order rxn, equation that related the initial concentration of A ([A] 0 ) to its concentration at any other time (t) ([A] t ) - Ln[A] t – ln[A] 0 = - kt OR ln [A] t /[A] 0 = - kt OR ln[A] t = - kt + ln[A] 0
- This equation can be used with any concentration unitis as long as the units for both are the same o Can be used to determine The concentration of a reactant remaining at any time after the reaction has started The time interval required for a given fraction of a sample to react The time interval required for a reactant concentration to fall to a certain

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• Summer '11
• LoBue
• Rate equation

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