Ch+4+5+Review_Bio+1500.docx - Ch 4 Review 1 Differentiate...

This preview shows 1 out of 3 pages.

Ch 4 Review 1. Differentiate between Organic and Inorganic molecules. Organic Molecules Contain BOTH carbon and Hydrogen. Also known as macromolecules. They are large molecules. Inorganic Molecules hat do NOT contain both carbon and hydrogen (Ex: salts - NaCl, stomach acid - HCl, base- NaOH, water - H2O, and carbon dioxide - CO2). They are small molecules. 2. Name the four classes of Macromolecules Proteins, Carbohydrates, Lipids and Nucleic Acids are the 4 types. 3. Define Hydrocarbons.    are organic molecules that consist of only carbon and hydrogen atoms. 4. What is Carbon’s versatility? It can bond with many elements, it can make single, double, and triple bonds, and it can make many different shapes. 5. How do chemical reactions occur between compounds? A process during which chemical bonds between atoms are broken and new ones are formed. Producing one or more different substances. 6. Describe the valence shells of Carbon, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Hydrogen. Carbon=4, Nitrogen=5, hydrogen=1 7. Describe polarity in C=O bonds. 8. Describe the nonpolar C-H bonds. 9. What is an isomer? Isomers are compounds that have the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different chemical properties. 10. Describe Structural isomers.  have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangement of atoms. Structural isomers may also differ in the location of the double bonds. 11. Define Geometric isomers. isomers in which the atoms are joined to one another in the same way but differ because some atoms occupy different relative positions in space 12. Define Enantiomer and give an example. Enantiomer are molecules that are mirror images of each other. Enantiomers are possible when four different atoms or groups of atoms are bonded to an asymmetric carbon . The four groups can be arranged in space in two different ways that are mirror images of each other. They are like left-handed and right-handed versions of the molecule. Usually one is biologically active, while the other is inactive.
Image of page 1

Subscribe to view the full document.

13. Why are enantiomers pharmaceutically important?  two enantiomers of a drug may not be equally effective. For example, methamphetamine occurs in two enantiomers with very different effects. One is a highly addictive street drug called “crank”, while the other is sold for treatment of nasal congestion 14. Define functional groups.  affect molecular function through their direct involvement in chemical reactions. 15. What functional groups differentiates male and female sex hormones? Methyl 16. What are the seven functional groups we talked about in class? hydroxyl, carbonyl, carboxyl, amino, sulfhydryl, phosphate, and methyl groups, 17. What is the important functional group in ATP and how many are there? Phosphate group Describe what will happen if ATP loses a phosphate group?  When one inorganic phosphate ion is split off as a result of a reaction with water, ATP becomes adenosine di phosphate, or ADP.
Image of page 2
Image of page 3
You've reached the end of this preview.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern