Biology.docx - Jan 23 BIOLOGY 1 CHEMICAL BONDS A Strong i...

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Jan. 23 BIOLOGY 1. CHEMICAL BONDS A. Strong: i. Covalent bonds, strong bond, involve sharing of electrons to complete the valence shell B. Weak: i. Non-covalent bonds C. Valence is the number of electrons needed to fill the outermost shell of an atom D. Valence electrons are the elecrons contained in the outermost shell of an atom E. Ionic bonds i. Weak Bonds F. Hydrogen Bonds i. Weak (noncovalent) Bonds G. Polar Bonds i. Unequal sharing of electrons 2. WATER A. Heat Capacity i. Amount of heat to raise temp. B. Heat of vaporization i. Amount of heat to vaporize 1 g of water ii. 540 kcal per g at 100 C C. Heat of Fusion i. Amount of heat removed to freeze 1 g of water. ii. 79.70 cal per g D. Freezing point/Melting point E. Super-Cooling (under cooling) i. Cooling of liquid below its freezing point without the formation of ice crystals F. Pure Water
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i. In the absence of heterogenus nucleators can super cool to -40 C G. Ice nucleators i. Proteins ii. Polysaccharides iii. Prevent super-cooling and rapid freezing 3. FREEZE TOLERENT PLANT A.
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