Chem 6A Study Guide.pdf - Chapter 1 Chemistry is an...

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Chapter 1: Chemistry is an Empirical Science Chapter 2: Atoms and Molecules Chapter 3 Periodic Table and Periodicity Chapter 6: Ionic Bond and Compounds Chapter 7:Lewis Formulas & Covalent Compounds Chapter 8: Prediction of Molecular Geometry Chapter 9: Covalent Bonding Valence Bond & Molecular Orbital Theory Chapter 10 Chemical Reactivity Chapter 1: Chemistry is an Empirical Science I. Chemistry is an Empirical Science A. Scientific method a. Def: use of carefully controlled experiments to answer specific questions. b. Diagram i. Goal or Question ii. Qualitative and Quantitative data iii. Hypothesis iv. Experiments v. Results consistent with Hypothesis vi. Law vii. Theory viii. Theory modified as necessary by further experiments B. Qualitative vs. Quantitative 1) Qualitative: characteristics of the material under study a) Color, shape, odor, reaction tendencies b) Lead is denser than Al 2) Quantitative : consisting number obtained by measurements. a) Absorbs of light 450 nm b) 11.3g/cm^3 vs. 2.70g/cm^3 c) 1cm^3 = 1 mL
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C. Hypothesis, Law, Theory Hypothesis Law Theory - an untested explanation based upon observation or known facts. - a botanist guesses but has not verified that plants with 1 red flower and one white - flowered parent will have pink flowers - summarizes, but does not explain how - an explanation that has been tested and verified. - Scientists, after multiple experiments, come to a conclusion that matter is composed of atoms. - example II. Law of Conservation of Mass A. Total mass of reactants = total mass of products formed. a. discovered by Antoine Lavoisier i. carry quantitative chemical measurements in the modern sense. B. Mass is conserved in chemical reactions. III. Metric System A. SI Units Measured Length Meter Mass Kilogram Temperature Kelvin
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Time Second Amount of Substance Mole B. Prefixes Giga (G) 10 9 Mega (M) 10 6 Kilo (K) 10 3 Centi (c) 10 -2 Milli (m) 10 -3 Micro (μ) 10 -6 Nano (n) 10 -9 Pico (p) 10 -12 Femto (f) 10 -15 Atto (a) 10 -18 IV. Accuracy and Precision Accuracy Precise closeness of measurements that are close to one measurements to the true value another.
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V. Temperature / Density A. Temperature a. Formulas i. K = °C + 273.15 ii. C = 5/9 (°F - 32.0) iii. F = 9/5 °C +32.0 b. Definition i. is a property that constitutes a quantitative measure of the relative tendency of heat to escape from an object. 1. The ↑ temperature of an object, increasing is the tendency of heat to escape from an object. B. Density a. Def: mass per unit volume of a substance b. Formula: d = mass/volume (d = m/v) c. mass = kg, g, mg, µg volume = mL, L, cm 3 - Note: 1 ml = 1cm 3 - 1/cm 3 = cm -3 d = g cm -3 C. Intensive/Extensive properties a. Intensive property - independent of the amount of substance. 1. ex) density: of gold at 20°C is 19.3g/cm^3 a. temperature, color, hardness, melting point, boiling point, pressure, molecular weight, and density b. Extensive property - changes when the size of the sample changes.
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  • Fall '08
  • staff
  • Atom, Chemical bond, Covalent Bonding Valence Bond

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