Biochemistry Unit Test review notes.pdf

Biochemistry Unit Test review notes.pdf - Divya Dadar...

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Divya Dadar Biochemistry The Cell Theory - All living things are made up of cells - Cells are the basic unit of structure and function in living things - All cells come from previously existing cells - The activity of an entire organism depends on the total activity of its independent cells The development of the microscope is what gave us access to the microscope world Cell Structure and Function - Cells differ greatly in type,size,shape and function Prokaryotic Cells - The smallest cells with the simplest type of internal organization - “Before the nucleus” - DNA is not enclosed in a nucleus - Include all bacteria Eukaryotic Cells - Contain a nucleus bound by a nuclear membrane and other organelles - All plants, animals, fungi and protests - Very diverse Cell Organelles
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Divya Dadar - Cells are made up of a variety of organelles each with its own function - An internal, membrane bound sac that have a specific metabolic function within a cell - Both plant and animals cells share similar organelles but each has their own specific one Characteristics of life: - Made of Cells - Movement and Growth - Sensing and responding - Obtain food and energy - Excretion - Maintaining homeostasis - Reproduce STSE New treatments for: - Cancer - HIV/AIDS - Hepatitis C CHEMISTRY REVIEW The Atom - Bohr Rutherford diagram is composed of an extremely small nucleus containing protons and neutrons surrounded by tiny negatively charged neutrons. Atomic Number - # of protons or electrons - Atomic Mass - Protons + Neutrons Isotopes - Atoms of elements with the same atomic number but a different mass number - Since the atomic number is the same, the number of protons and electrons are the same - Therefore, there can only be a difference in the number of neutrons Isotopes of Hydrogen
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Divya Dadar Radioisotopes - These are isotopes that are radioactive and decompose spontaneously Chemical Bonding - Compounds are stable combinations of atoms of different elements held together by chemical bonds - Two most common intermolecular bonds(within a molecule) are ionic and covalent Ionic Compounds - An ionic bond is a force of attraction between a cation (+ ion) and an anion (- ion) Covalent Compounds - Is formed when two atoms share one or more pairs of electrons Molecular Polarity - Covalent compounds can be either polar or nonpolar (determined by the difference in EN) - A polar molecule has an unequal distribution of charge as a result of its polar bonds which determines its molecular shape - WATER Biological Importance - Life couldn't not exist on earth without water - ⅔ of all living things are made of water… so is ⅔ of the earth Herbaceous plants are almost 90% water Our lungs are about 90% water Our brains are almost 70% water Water helps to control - Body temperature
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Divya Dadar - Keeps eyes moist, lubricates joints - Protects brain and heart Physical Properties Water is - Colourless’ - Tasteless - Odorless - Found in all three states on earth Chemical Properties - Made up of an oxygen atom and two hydrogen atoms - Polar covalent - Asymmetrical shape -
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