1-3.pdf - Comparative vertebrate anatomy • Vertebrae...

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Mariel Capuno BSPH 2021 - Bio 102.1 Prof. Thucy p. 1Comparative vertebrate anatomy Vertebrae structure (descriptive morphology) Functional significance of the structure (functional morphology) 1.Vertebrates – with vertebral column 2.Invertebrates Protochordates – transitional between invertebrates and vertebrates Descriptive terms Dorsal – back/upper side (posterior – human) Ventral – under side (anterior – human) Lateral – sides, right and left Central – nearest an animal’s middle Peripheral – nearest the surface Proximal – near the body’s main mass Distal – away from the main mass of the body Superficial – on or near the surface Deep – some distance below the surface Superior – above Inferior – below 3 principal Body Axes 1.Longitudinal axis (anteroposterior) 2.Dorsoventral Axis 3.Left-right axis 3 Principal anatomic planes 1.Transverse – L and R; dorsoventral plane 2.Cross section 3.Frontal – L and R; longitudinal axes Frontal section 4.Sagittal – longitudinal and dorsoventral Sagittal section Metamerism/Segmentation Regular repetition of body parts along the anteroposterior axis Metamere, segment, somite – each division of the body External and internal segmentation Cephalization Centralization or localization of nervous structures and functions in the head dominance of the head Homology and Analogy A.Homology Manifestation of homologous structures in different species Homologous structures oInherited from a common ancestor oMay be similar/broadly dissimilar morphologically and functionally oStapes in the middle ear of mammals and hyomandibular cartilage that suspends the jaw oSerial homology – vertebral column, limbs hands B.Analogy Coincidental resemblance 2 structures with the same function E.g. horns of cattle and rhinoceros
Mariel Capuno BSPH 2021 - Bio 102.1 Prof. Thucy p. 2The Big 4 1.Pharyngeal slits Openings that connect the inside of the throat to the outside of the neck 2.Dorsal nerve cord Bundle of nerve fibers which runs down the “back”, connects the brain with the lateral muscles and other organs 3.Notochord Cartilaginous rod running underneath, and supporting the nerve cord 4.Post-anal tail Extension of the body past the anal opening Apomorphy Novel evolutionary trait Unique to a particular species and all its descendants Defining character for a species/group in phylogenetic terms Evolved within a family tree E.g. feathers unique to birds = defines class Aves members Synapomorphy Trait shared by at least 2 taxa and their latest common ancestor Derived/specialized/modified Evolutionarily related and can only be proved by their synapomorphy character states Phylogenetic trees are built by discovering groups united by synapomorphies Serial homology – similarity in the structure features in a series within the same individual; vertebral column, limbs, hands

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Physiology, Anatomy, Developmental Biology, Embryology, Morphology, Germ layer, Embryo, Mariel Capuno

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