weaken cell wall.docx - Drugs that weaken the bacterial...

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Drugs that weaken the bacterial cell wall PENICILLIN - Active against variety of bacteria - low toxicity - beta-lactam - principal adverse effect: allergic reaction MOA - weaken cell wall - bacteria take up excessive water and rupture - inhibition of transpeptidases - disinhibition of autolysis - active only against bacteria undergoing growth and division - bactericidal MOR - inability of penicillin to reach target - inactivation of PCN by bacterial enzymes - production of PBP that have low affinity for pcn Penicillinases - beta-lactamases - enzymes that render pcn inactive - bacteria can produce variety of enzymes specific for pcn classification of PCN - narrow spectrum penicillinase sensitive penicillinase resistant - broad spectrum - extended spectrum PCN G (benzylpenicillin)
MOA - bactericidal to gram post and some gram neg organisms adverse effects - least toxic - drug allergy therapeutic uses - infections causes by sensitive gram+ cocci - strep pneumonia - pharyngitis - infectious endocarditis caused by few strains of staph aureus that do not produce penicillinase - gram + bacilli gas gangrene, anthrax - prophylactic to prevent syphilis for those with infected partners absorption - four salt forms potassium sodium procaine benzathine - IM: procaine, benzathine - IV: potassium, sodium Distribution - Well to most tissues - Absence of inflammation: penetration to meninges, joints, eyes is poor - With inflammation: penetration is enhanced Metabolism - Minimal Excretion - By the kidneys - 90% by active tubular secretion - 10% glomerular filtration - T ½: 30min (in older adults and children) Side effects - Allergic reaction

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