UNIT 15 REVOLUTIONARY TRENDS, GHADAR PARTY AND HOME RULE LEAGUE Structure 15.0 Objectives ' 15.1 Introduction / 15.2 Revolutionary Trends I 15.2.1 Factors Leading to Revolutionary Trends 15.2.2 Early Activities 15.2.3 Decline of the Revolutionary Trend 15.3 The Ghadar Movement 15.3.1 Background of the Movement 15.3.2 Early Activities 15.3.3 Towards Organisation 15.3.4 Strategy and Action 15.4 Ghadar Movement : The Main Events 15.4.1 The Movement in the Last Phase 15.4.2 The Repression 15.4.3 Failure and Achievements 15.5 Home Rule Leagues 15.5.1 Events Leading to the Formation of Leagues 15.5.2 Two Leagues 15.5.3 Tilak's Home Rule League 15.5.4 Annie Besant's Home Rule League 15.5.5 Change in British Attitude 15.5.6 Decline of the Home Rule Leagues 1'5.6 Let Us Sum Up 15.7 Key Words 15.8 Answers to Check Your Progress Exercises i ) 15.0 OBJECTIVES I In the early years of the twentieth century a new dimension was added to the Indian National Movement. This was the emergence of revolutionary terrorism as a political weapon. After reading this Unit you will be able to: identify the factors that contributed to the emergenceqof revolutionary terrorism, 1 know about the early activities of revolutionaries and the causes of their decline. understand what was the strategy of the Ghadar Movement and its details, discuss the achievements of the Ghadar Movement, and know about the Home Rule Leagues and their contribution in the National Movement. 15.1 INTRODUCTION The first major attempt at a country-wide mass movement-the Swadeshi Movement-all but died out by 1907; the next major effort came after the First World War. In the intervening years, the national movement was to witness three different experiments in political action, all of which contributed in their own way to the furthering and deepening of national consciousness. The first experiment, that of revolutionary terrorism, synchronised with the end of the mass phase of the Swadeshi movement, the other two, the Ghadar and Home Rule Movements spanned the years of the First World War.
Radical Trends, Nationalism and Mahatma Candhl 15.3 REVOLUTIONARY TRENDS Revolutionary terrorism was the form of political action adopted by a generation of highly- motivated nationalist youth whose creative energies failed to find adequate room for expression within the existing political trends. 15.2.1 Factors Leading to Revolutionary Trends The Extremists' critique of Moderate politics had convinced them of the futility of trying to convert the British rulers by petitioning and reasonable argument. They had participated actively in the Swadeshi movement in the hope and belief that Extremist methods of agitation such as boycott, passive resistance, etc., would take the national movement out of its elitist groove. They expected that this movement would bring the British Government to its knees. As you have already studied in Unit-l 1, the Swadeshi movement was only partially successful in mobilising vast sections of the masses. It also could not secure the reversal of the partition of Bengal. This failure was however, almost inevitable. Firstly because it was the first major attempt at m$ss mobilisation. And secondly its methods were