spice trade.docx - \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf \u25cf England preserved meat through salt Meat would test rotten Use lots of spices to mask the

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Unformatted text preview: ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● England preserved meat through salt Meat would test rotten Use lots of spices to mask the rotten taste ○ mace/nutmeg- only grew in Banda Islands until the 1600’s ■ Very rare and expensive ■ Moves from city to city and becomes more valuable Silk Road= The Spice Road ○ Spices were a lot more valuable than silk during 1500’s ○ Leads to Constantinople ■ 1453- Constantinople falls ● Last Christian Port ● Muslim Cities ■ Europeans began to trade with India and Southern half of Africa Old Technology ○ Galley- boats designed to travel around the mediterranean by rowing (Venice produced the best) ■ Rowing and sailing to Constantinople ○ Dead Reckoning ■ Rutter- book of secrets with directions through landmarks such as the sun, stars, wind speed Zheng He- Chinese man who explored the world with big ass ships ○ Brought back a whole bunch of gifts ○ China thinks the gifts are shitty ○ China goes back to being China and being awesome New Technology ○ Caravel- round bottom ships ■ More storage below water line ■ Triangular sails to catch the wind better ○ Compass- better use of direction Maps ○ Old European maps were meant to look pretty ○ Buy and trade for maps ○ Islamic maps were more accurate Pirates!!- try to raid and steal at sea ○ Cannons and gun ○ Ready to saillll Prince Henry the Navigator-1394-1460 ○ Sails down the coast of Africa ○ Sets up factories ○ Run by Factors- chief officer employed by the king ○ Elmina- town in Ghana where they build trading fort ■ Gold, spices, animal skins, slaves (1441, beginning of slave trade) ■ Prisoners of war who had to do labor for 10 years before they could go home ○ ○ ● ● ● ● ● Europeans want from Africa: animals, gold, pepper, slaves Can’t conquest Africa ■ African diseases killed europeans ■ Better politics and more structured ■ Africa had iron weapons already ○ Africa wants from Europe: weapons, cloths, salt ■ In mid 1600’s constantly at war, politics crumble ■ Feedback cycle-trading more weapons=more slaves=more war ○ SUGAR- need for slaves ■ Very labor intensive process to make sugar ■ Only 24 hours to process b/c of bacteria ■ Africans are susceptible to disease and the heat=Best slaves ■ Young men are mostly imported to Haiti, Cuba, and Brazil 1488- Bartolomeu Dias ○ Sails around Africa and names it the Cape Good Hope ○ 4 ships, 170 Vasco Da Gama 1460-1524 ○ Sails around Africa in 1498 ○ Reaches India and trades directly with them instead of going through muslims ○ Makes profits of 60 times the cost of the journey ○ So much money that Portugal becomes wealthy ○ Becomes a powerful empire in 1400’s ○ 1580- Portugal and Spain join together Dutch take over the Banda Islands in 1609 ○ Nathan Courthope- british sail and merchant ■ Sails to Asia in 1616 ■ Shows up to the island of Run (smallest Banda Island) ■ Takes it over as British ■ Dutch are angry ■ Dutch attack island and Courthope holds then back ■ Holds the island for 1540 days (4 years) ■ After Courthope dies his men surrender ■ 40 year lawsuit against dutch and british ■ (how we end up with New York and New Jersey) Eratosthenes- librarian at the library of Alexandria ○ Discovered that the earth was round Christopher Columbus 1451-1506 ○ 1492- proposes idea to King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella to sail west to get to India instead of south and around Africa ■ Santa Maria ■ Nina ■ La Pinta ○ Toscanelli-1474 ■ Makes maps that Columbus based his argument on ○ ● ● ● ● ● ● Argument: ■ Says the world ⅓ smaller than people imagine it to be ■ Asia is way bigger ■ Japan is way closer to Europe ○ Makes journey ■ Lands on San Salvador ■ Sails to Cuba ■ Wants gold, silver, exotic animals, spices, slaves ■ Gets a lot of parrots and some natives ■ Crashes Santa Maria on coral reef ■ Loads everything on Nina and La Pinta ■ Goes back to Spain with parrots and explains to King and Queen about conversion to Christianity ■ Three more Trips ● 1493-1496- builds plantations and enslaved natives ● 1498-1500- goes back to Spain to deliver progress report and returns to Cuba to run plantation ● 1502-1504- Finds Mexico Waldseemuller Map- 1507 ○ Drew map of New World- named in The America’s Mercator-1569 Magellan makes his way around the world in 1519 (dies in the Philippines, crew continues journey) ○ Goes from Spain, to central American, around South America, to Philippines, to india, around Africa, and back to Spain Conquistadors (led by Cortez)conquered Aztec nations ○ looks for gold Columbian exchange- trade between new and old world ○ Animals ○ Crops ○ Disease 50-90% and native americans die ■ Feedback cycle-a problem becomes worse because of that problem ■ Disease leads to starvation and starvation leads to disease ○ People aka slaves Why Europeans were successful in the Americans ○ Disease- killed lots of natives ○ Politics- unbalanced ○ Better weapons- guns ...
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  • Winter '17
  • John Martin

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