History Notes 2.docx - HISTORY NOTES CHAPTER 2 ALIEN...

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HISTORY NOTESCHAPTER 2: ALIEN ENCOUNTERS: EUROPEIN THE AMERICAS09/03/18Section 1 A. Spanish Colonization of the Americas-For much of the 15thcentury sailors had ventured far beyond familiar shoresMost notable was prince Henry the navigator-3rdson of JohnI-King of PortugalPrince Henry would end up in the canaries on his way westward to find a new route to Asia*Primitive compasses & instruments for reckoning latitude existed but were inaccurate The Portuguese had taken the lead in exploring but would soon be eclipsed by Spain-though the genius behind the Spanish effort would be an Italian B.-Columbus was an intelligent and skillful mariner who studied Marco Polo’s account of exploration Columbus and other explorers searched for a direct all water route to Asia to gain easier access to highly valued Asian goods*Columbus believed the circumference of the Earth was 18,000 miles when it was actually 24,901 milesVasco de Gama’s voyage was typical of European sailors of that time in that he hugged the coastline but did nit venture far across open water*Columbus could not get funding from Portugal King John II so he turned to Spain Queen Isabella
He was granted title of Admiral of the Ocean Sea, political control over lands he discovered, 10% of profits from futuretrade with discoveries & three ships- The Santa Maria, The Pinta and The NinaAugust of 1492 Columbus set sail & on the morning of October 12, 1492 an island in the Bahamas was spottedWhen columbus landed in America, the chief reason that hethought he had landed in “the Indies” was his firm belief hehad sailed far enough west to reach them*Columbus named the land San Salvador or “Holy Savior”Columbus characterized the natives of San Salvador as poor warriors who could easily be subdued*Columbus had sailed 4,000 miles but was nowhere near Japan or Asia Columbus would not accept that he had not landed in Asia & 3 later voyages would fail to do so as well C.Columbus died in 1506 but other explorers would follow and they accepted the idea of a “New World”By 1493 pope alexander VI had divided the non-Christian world between Spain and Portugal By the treaty of the Tordesillas (1494), Spain had authority to exploit all of north and south America except brazil*Portugal would concentrate on Africa Using Hispaniola as their base- the Spaniards fanned out across the Caribbean and the two continents that bordered it1513 vasco nunez de balboa crossed the isthmus of panama and “discovered” the pacific 1519 Hernan Cortes landed an army in Mexico and overran the empire of the Aztecs 1519 Ferdinand Magellan set out on his 3 year voyage around the world 1530’s Francisco Pizzaro conquered the Inca bringing more riches to Spain2
Spain’s American empire is best described as trying to implant Spanish civilization and to introduce Christianity but also committing unprovoked aggression*

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