IS Final Cheat Sheat .docx - Chapter 7(Processes...

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Chapter 7 (Processes, Organizations, and IS) Differences Between Structured and Dynamic Processes: - Structured: formally defined standardized processes usually involved day-to-day operations. Standardized, usually formally defined and documented, Process structure changes slowly and with organizational agony (i.e., Merchandise return at Macy’s) - Dynamic: f lexible, informal, and adaptive processes normally involved strategic and less structured managerial decision making. Support strategic, and less structured managerial decision and activities. Adaptive processes that change structure rapidly and readily (i.e., what women’s clothing to carry next spring? Processes used in different organizational scope; workgroup, enterprise, and inter-enterprise 3 Levels of organizational scope: *Workgroup (10-20 users, could support multiple processes within a workgroup. Operations (order entry, order mgmt.) Accounting.) *Enterprise (100 - 1000 + users, span many departments and people - Difficult to manage) *Inter- enterprise (1000 + users, span two or more independent organizations (e.g. supply chain)), the wider the scope, the more challenging the process is to manage How IS Improve process quality? *Performing an activity (automation) *Augmenting human performing activity (common reservation system that involves both human and IS) *Controlling data quality and process flow (ensure data complete and correct before continuing process activities) What is process efficiency and process effectiveness? *Efficiency: ratio of process outputs to inputs *Effectiveness: measures how well a process achieves organizational strategy How are processes improved? *Change process structure (reorganize/improve the process) *Change process resources (change the allocation of resources (both human and IS/automation)) Problems of information silos and how they are reduced/solved? *Information silos are defined as the condition when data is isolated in separated IS *How do Organizations solve the problems of Information Silos? (Integrate data into a single database/repository, Revise/update the applications, but if integration is not possible or practical, then allow isolation but manage) *What are the problems of info silos? (Data are duplicated, Data inconsistency, Data isolated, Business process disjointed, Lack of integrated enterprise information, Inefficiency: decisions are made in isolation, Increased cost for the organization) What are CRM, ERP, and EAI? Know the descriptions and characteristics of each * Customer relationship management (CRM): Suite of applications, a database, and a set of inherent processes. Manage all interactions with customer through four phases of customer life cycle (Marketing, customer acquisition, relationship management, loss/churn). Intended to support customer-centric organizations. Example: ZOHO. *Enterprise resource planning (ERP): Suite of applications called modules, a database, and a set of processes for consolidating business operations into a single, consistent, computing platform. The primary purpose is integration: allows the left hand know what the right hand is doing. Complicated and costly to implement. Top Vendors: SAP, Oracle, Microsoft. *Enterprise

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