Unformatted text preview: Introduction of
[email protected] Scan to join ABCC1103 F2F Telegram Group What is
communication? What is communication?
1. Communication is a process of acting on information.
2. Communication is a process whereby people assign meanings to stimuli
in order to make sense of the world.
3. Communication is the transmission of ideas, emotions and skills by
using graphics, symbols and words.
4. Communication is a sharing of information.
5. Communication is a process where one person tells something to
another through the written or spoken word. process of interaction and sharing of meaning
sharing of information
sound or speech writing How
face-to- face symbols
mass media Systemic
Process (relating to a system) Wood (2001) Symbolic
Meaning Verdeber & Verdeber (2002)
• Communication is a process of forming and sharing
meaning in informal conversation, group interaction
or public speaking. Communication process involves
a communicator, context, message, channel, noise
element and feedback. Gamble & Gamble (2002)
experience perception regarding the behaviour.
observed behaviour Hybels and Weaver (2001)
ideas, information, feelings
sharing speech, writing, behaviour and body language Trenholm (2001)
context pragmatics Functions and uses of communication Communication is
a) Delivery and distribution of information by
imparting ideas, knowledge, thoughts and
b) Generation of ideas for specific purposes.
c) Sharing of meaning between the source
and receiver in forming a relationship. THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION
a) Our personal lives;
(b) Career advancement;
(c) Ethics in communicating;
(d) Adapting in a multicultural society; and
(e) Changes in technology and relationships ELEMENTS IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS
• Source - encoder
Receiver - decoder
Message - using symbol understand by others
Channel - tools to deliver the message. What is the best
Noise - physical, physio-psychological, mental
Feedback - reaction towards message
Frame of reference - experience and knowledge
Context ELEMENTS IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION Scope of
Communication Intrapersonal Communication • communication process that takes place
within the individual self. Interpersonal Communication • Interpersonal communication is
normally referred to two
individuals interacting face-to-face Basic characteristics of interpersonal
communication Group Communication
• Group communication
involves interaction with
specific purposes, solving
problems, forming new
ideas and new experience. Public Communication
• Public communication is
communication with the
purpose of delivering
information to a large
number of people. Important factors in public speaking Mass Communication • process of information sharing using various intermediary media directed
towards a large audience. Mass communication has the following
• There is a media mediator between the source and receiver of information
• Mass communication audience consists of a group of individuals of various types
• The distance between the source and receiver is remote
• The source does not know who are the receiving public
• Communication happens formally
• Information is prepared by the source which consists of specific individuals or
group of individuals (producer, actor, director, and editor) Differences between mass communication and other type of
communications • Limited or non- existent interaction.
• Limited feedback.
• High impact to the public. Organisational Communication
• Communication that occurs in a complex system and influenced
by the environment, internal and external factors
• Communication involving messages and its flow, purpose,
direction and media
• Communication involving people, attitude, feeling, relation, and
the skill they possess. Types of communication
1. Downward Communication
2. Upward Communication
3. Horizontal Communication
4. Cross-channel Communication
5. Grapevine Intercultural Communication
• Gamble & Gamble (2002) saw intercultural
communication as a process of interpretation
and sharing of meaning with someone of
different cultural background. Challenges in intercultural communication
1. a person who practises a different culture perceives what happens
around him differently or makes a comparison between the cultures
he practices with those of others.
2. each culture has a different acceptance of a person's roles.
3. each culture has a different view towards the objectives that are
considered important among members of the culture.
4. culture influences the basis for a person's identity (Trenholm, 2001) Online communication
• Online discussion
• MMS Communication Models • Models help to simplify the explanation
of complex ideas and processes. Berlo’s SMCR model Linear Model
• In a linear communication model, the
communication process takes place in one way
at a time between the source (encoder) and the
receiver (decoder) of message. Harold Laswell
What is said?
Through what channel?
With what effects? Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver Interactive Model
• Feedback is the response to the
message received either verbal or
nonverbal. Interactive communication model • The model proposed the element of
feedback and the field of experience
that explains the communication
process more clearly. Concept by Wilbur Schramm 1. frame of reference
2. field of experience Transaction Model • Communication takes place at school, market, meeting
room, home, in certain cultural groups, among members of
social groups, or in religious ceremonies.
• The context in which communication happens, will
influence the way message is encoded, interpreted or
decoded. In situations, fields of experience act as frames of
reference that help the process of understanding. What is self-identity?
We self-identify ourselves by being
self-aware of who we are. Blanche Monnier
At age 25, Blanche Monnier wanted to marry a lawyer who
was not to her mother's liking. Her disapproving mother
locked her in a tiny room, where she kept her secluded for 25
years. On May 23, 1901, the Paris Attorney General received
an anonymous letter that revealed the incarceration. Monnier
was rescued by police from appalling conditions .
Her mother was arrested, became ill shortly afterwards, and
died 15 days later. Her brother Marcel Monnier appeared in
court, and was initially convicted, but later was acquitted on
appeal; Marcel Monnier was mentally incapacitated, and
although the judges criticized his choices, they found that a
"duty to rescue" did not exist in the penal code at that time.
After she was released from the room, Monnier continued to
suffer from mental problems that soon led to her admission to
a psychiatric hospital, where she died in 1913. - Wikipedia What is the relation between
self-identity and communication? • Communication comes from within ourselves and
will end up also within ourselves. ● Communication plays an important role in the
formation of self-identity. A person cannot
explain an idea, declare needs or interact
effectively, without communication. Self-Concept and Communication
• Knowing oneself is not something easy, a
person learns most about himself through life
• The perception of a person of himself is generated
based on new and old experiences, plus the
background of practiced culture. Self
• Knowing ‘self’ involves the way a person evaluates
himself from his own viewpoint and from the
viewpoint of others.
• This includes what is thought about oneself and the
belief that he upholds about himself.
• The combination of attitude and belief upheld by a
person is formed throughout his/her life experience. Self-concept
• Self-concept and how one looks at himself
influence how we communicate and provide
feedback to others. Social comparison
• Another important factor in
knowing oneself is to
compare oneself with others
or social comparison. By
comparing oneself, a person
may have the opportunity to
learn and select what is best
for himself. Self-fulfilling prophecy
• Self-fulfilling prophecy means that the view
held by a person of himself would influence
his action or behaviour in certain situations. • A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that
directly or indirectly causes itself to become
true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself,
due to positive feedback between belief and
behaviour. - Wikipedia • The story of Romulus and Remus is another example.
According to legend, a man overthrew his brother, the king.
He then ordered that his two nephews, Romulus and Remus,
be drowned, fearing that they would someday kill him like
he did to his brother. The boys were placed in a basket and
thrown in the Tiber River. A wolf found the babies and she
raised them. Later, a shepherd found the twins and named
them Romulus and Remus. As teenagers, they found out
who they were. They killed their uncle, fulfilling the
• image given by others,
practices, norms and culture,
interpretation and evaluation. Formation of self-concept
• • • Interactions with individuals actually help a person to
know himself. The image portrayed through interaction
with other people reflects oneself as if he is looking at
his own reflection.
The perception of others on oneself forms that person's
image of himself. From such image, a person would
indirectly learn who he is, and could assume what will
be received as a result of the interaction or relation with
Nearby colleagues are always providing feedback on
completed jobs. It is this feedback that forms the
individual's self-identity. Gender and Self Formation • Masculine characteristics refer to a person who is
firm, has material success and strong physical body.
• Feminine characteristics are considered to be of
moderate attitude, focusing on quality of life and
• Masculinity emphasises its members to confront conflicts
directly and resist any deviation, while femininity asks her
members to compromise and discuss in solving conflicts. Difference between genders
• Listening Process • Level of Friendliness • Perception
Towards Power Uncertainties in
Communication How to Reduce Uncertainties in
• Openness/Self Disclosure
• Studies show that the method of openness or
self-disclosure is effective in understanding and
learning about other individuals.
• Openness in communication happens when an
individual openly communicates with one or more
individuals about himself. Self-disclosure
• Self-disclosure in relation: it does not happen
randomly but continuously.
• Each side provides and receives.
• A meaningful relation exists. COMMUNICATION WITH FAMILY
MEMBERS Communication in Family System • The theory in family system regards family as a dynamic system
because relation and communication in it is closely related. • Family is regarded as a system runs a
communication process as a result of interactive
relations and interdependence among family
members. Communication in a family system
• An ideal family does not exist.
• Communication in a family system is a
process that happens when a family
member discusses and shares meaning
among the members. • A healthy family will attempt to adapt and shape
changes to share closeness between members and able
to control and handle conflicts taking place properly.
• Family in the best example in the context of
communication of multiple generations, from the
smallest members of family to the adults and the
elderly. Importance of Communication in
Family System Thank you ...