T1-Introduction of Communication.pptx.pdf - Introduction of Communication ABCC1103 Alfean Aziz 0168964748 [email protected] Scan to join ABCC1103 F2F

T1-Introduction of Communication.pptx.pdf - Introduction of...

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Unformatted text preview: Introduction of Communication ABCC1103 Alfean Aziz 0168964748 [email protected] Scan to join ABCC1103 F2F Telegram Group What is communication? What is communication? 1. Communication is a process of acting on information. 2. Communication is a process whereby people assign meanings to stimuli in order to make sense of the world. 3. Communication is the transmission of ideas, emotions and skills by using graphics, symbols and words. 4. Communication is a sharing of information. 5. Communication is a process where one person tells something to another through the written or spoken word. process of interaction and sharing of meaning exchanging ideas sharing of information opinion Definition? sound or speech writing How face-to- face symbols mass media Systemic Process (relating to a system) Wood (2001) Symbolic Meaning Verdeber & Verdeber (2002) • Communication is a process of forming and sharing meaning in informal conversation, group interaction or public speaking. Communication process involves a communicator, context, message, channel, noise element and feedback. Gamble & Gamble (2002) transferring meaning experience perception regarding the behaviour. observed behaviour Hybels and Weaver (2001) ideas, information, feelings sharing speech, writing, behaviour and body language Trenholm (2001) psychology social context pragmatics Functions and uses of communication Communication is a) Delivery and distribution of information by imparting ideas, knowledge, thoughts and messages. b) Generation of ideas for specific purposes. c) Sharing of meaning between the source and receiver in forming a relationship. THE IMPORTANCE OF COMMUNICATION a) Our personal lives; (b) Career advancement; (c) Ethics in communicating; (d) Adapting in a multicultural society; and (e) Changes in technology and relationships ELEMENTS IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS • • • • • • • • Source - encoder Receiver - decoder Message - using symbol understand by others Channel - tools to deliver the message. What is the best tool? Noise - physical, physio-psychological, mental Feedback - reaction towards message Frame of reference - experience and knowledge Context ELEMENTS IN COMMUNICATION PROCESS FUNCTIONS OF COMMUNICATION Scope of Communication Intrapersonal Communication • communication process that takes place within the individual self. Interpersonal Communication • Interpersonal communication is normally referred to two individuals interacting face-to-face Basic characteristics of interpersonal communication Group Communication • Group communication involves interaction with specific purposes, solving problems, forming new ideas and new experience. Public Communication • Public communication is communication with the purpose of delivering information to a large number of people. Important factors in public speaking Mass Communication • process of information sharing using various intermediary media directed towards a large audience. Mass communication has the following characteristics: • There is a media mediator between the source and receiver of information • Mass communication audience consists of a group of individuals of various types and behaviour • The distance between the source and receiver is remote • The source does not know who are the receiving public • Communication happens formally • Information is prepared by the source which consists of specific individuals or group of individuals (producer, actor, director, and editor) Differences between mass communication and other type of communications • Limited or non- existent interaction. • Limited feedback. • Gatekeepers. • High impact to the public. Organisational Communication • Communication that occurs in a complex system and influenced by the environment, internal and external factors • Communication involving messages and its flow, purpose, direction and media • Communication involving people, attitude, feeling, relation, and the skill they possess. Types of communication 1. Downward Communication 2. Upward Communication 3. Horizontal Communication 4. Cross-channel Communication 5. Grapevine Intercultural Communication • Gamble & Gamble (2002) saw intercultural communication as a process of interpretation and sharing of meaning with someone of different cultural background. Challenges in intercultural communication 1. a person who practises a different culture perceives what happens around him differently or makes a comparison between the cultures he practices with those of others. 2. each culture has a different acceptance of a person's roles. 3. each culture has a different view towards the objectives that are considered important among members of the culture. 4. culture influences the basis for a person's identity (Trenholm, 2001) Online communication • IRC • E-mail • Messenger • Online discussion • SMS • MMS Communication Models • Models help to simplify the explanation of complex ideas and processes. Berlo’s SMCR model Linear Model • In a linear communication model, the communication process takes place in one way at a time between the source (encoder) and the receiver (decoder) of message. Harold Laswell • • • • • Who? What is said? Through what channel? To whom? With what effects? Claude Shannon and Warren Weaver Interactive Model • Feedback is the response to the message received either verbal or nonverbal. Interactive communication model • The model proposed the element of feedback and the field of experience that explains the communication process more clearly. Concept by Wilbur Schramm 1. frame of reference 2. field of experience Transaction Model • Communication takes place at school, market, meeting room, home, in certain cultural groups, among members of social groups, or in religious ceremonies. • The context in which communication happens, will influence the way message is encoded, interpreted or decoded. In situations, fields of experience act as frames of reference that help the process of understanding. What is self-identity? We self-identify ourselves by being self-aware of who we are. Blanche Monnier At age 25, Blanche Monnier wanted to marry a lawyer who was not to her mother's liking. Her disapproving mother locked her in a tiny room, where she kept her secluded for 25 years. On May 23, 1901, the Paris Attorney General received an anonymous letter that revealed the incarceration. Monnier was rescued by police from appalling conditions .[3][4] Her mother was arrested, became ill shortly afterwards, and died 15 days later. Her brother Marcel Monnier appeared in court, and was initially convicted, but later was acquitted on appeal; Marcel Monnier was mentally incapacitated, and although the judges criticized his choices, they found that a "duty to rescue" did not exist in the penal code at that time.[3][5] After she was released from the room, Monnier continued to suffer from mental problems that soon led to her admission to a psychiatric hospital, where she died in 1913. - Wikipedia What is the relation between self-identity and communication? • Communication comes from within ourselves and will end up also within ourselves. ● Communication plays an important role in the formation of self-identity. A person cannot explain an idea, declare needs or interact effectively, without communication. Self-Concept and Communication • Knowing oneself is not something easy, a person learns most about himself through life experience. • The perception of a person of himself is generated based on new and old experiences, plus the background of practiced culture. Self • Knowing ‘self’ involves the way a person evaluates himself from his own viewpoint and from the viewpoint of others. • This includes what is thought about oneself and the belief that he upholds about himself. • The combination of attitude and belief upheld by a person is formed throughout his/her life experience. Self-concept • Self-concept and how one looks at himself influence how we communicate and provide feedback to others. Social comparison • Another important factor in knowing oneself is to compare oneself with others or social comparison. By comparing oneself, a person may have the opportunity to learn and select what is best for himself. Self-fulfilling prophecy • Self-fulfilling prophecy means that the view held by a person of himself would influence his action or behaviour in certain situations. • A self-fulfilling prophecy is a prediction that directly or indirectly causes itself to become true, by the very terms of the prophecy itself, due to positive feedback between belief and behaviour. - Wikipedia • The story of Romulus and Remus is another example. According to legend, a man overthrew his brother, the king. He then ordered that his two nephews, Romulus and Remus, be drowned, fearing that they would someday kill him like he did to his brother. The boys were placed in a basket and thrown in the Tiber River. A wolf found the babies and she raised them. Later, a shepherd found the twins and named them Romulus and Remus. As teenagers, they found out who they were. They killed their uncle, fulfilling the prophecy. Self-awareness • • • • image given by others, social comparison, practices, norms and culture, interpretation and evaluation. Formation of self-concept • • • Interactions with individuals actually help a person to know himself. The image portrayed through interaction with other people reflects oneself as if he is looking at his own reflection. The perception of others on oneself forms that person's image of himself. From such image, a person would indirectly learn who he is, and could assume what will be received as a result of the interaction or relation with others. Nearby colleagues are always providing feedback on completed jobs. It is this feedback that forms the individual's self-identity. Gender and Self Formation • Masculine characteristics refer to a person who is firm, has material success and strong physical body. • Feminine characteristics are considered to be of moderate attitude, focusing on quality of life and being gentle. • Masculinity emphasises its members to confront conflicts directly and resist any deviation, while femininity asks her members to compromise and discuss in solving conflicts. Difference between genders • Listening Process • Level of Friendliness • Perception Towards Power Uncertainties in Communication How to Reduce Uncertainties in Communication • Openness/Self Disclosure • Studies show that the method of openness or self-disclosure is effective in understanding and learning about other individuals. • Openness in communication happens when an individual openly communicates with one or more individuals about himself. Self-disclosure • Self-disclosure in relation: it does not happen randomly but continuously. • Each side provides and receives. • A meaningful relation exists. COMMUNICATION WITH FAMILY MEMBERS Communication in Family System • The theory in family system regards family as a dynamic system because relation and communication in it is closely related. • Family is regarded as a system runs a communication process as a result of interactive relations and interdependence among family members. Communication in a family system • An ideal family does not exist. • Communication in a family system is a process that happens when a family member discusses and shares meaning among the members. • A healthy family will attempt to adapt and shape changes to share closeness between members and able to control and handle conflicts taking place properly. • Family in the best example in the context of communication of multiple generations, from the smallest members of family to the adults and the elderly. Importance of Communication in Family System Thank you ...
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