EESA11 Environmental Pollution Thursday, January 17th, 2019 Week 2: Air Pollution (Part 1) 1.Criteria Air Pollutants or Air Quality Indices -Sault Lake City January 201375 ug/m3 -Air quality in Beijing -Earth’s atmosphere: oOur atmosphere consists mainly of oxygen and nitrogen gasesoGas: N2 – 78.03 O2 – 20.99 Mainly nitrogen and oxygenoUp to stratosphere (47 km), troposphere (8.8km)
oHemoglobin: Carbon monoxide has a significant affinity to the iron (or copper) sites in haemoglobin (240 times stronger than oxygen), the principal oxygen-carrying compound in blood. CO binds to the hemoglobin, producing carboxyhemoglobin; which decreases the oxygen carrying capacity of the blood, inhibiting transport, delivery and utilizing of oxygen. The brain regulates breathing based upon carbon dioxide levels in the blood, rather than oxygen, so a victim can succumb to anoxia without evernoticing anything up to the point of collapse. oReducing Carbon Monoxide emissionsThe Clean Air Act gives state and local governments primary responsibility for regulating pollution from power plants, factories, and other “stationary sources.” The U.S Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has a primary responsibility for “mobile source” pollution control. EPA standards in the early 1970’s prompted automakers to improve basic engine design. By 1975, most new cars were equipped with catalytic converters that convert carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide. Catalysts typically reduce carbon monoxide emissions as much as 80 percent. Today’s passengers’ cars are capable of emitting 90 percent less carbon monoxide over their lifetimes than their uncontrolled counterparts of the 1960’s.
Carbon monoxide emissions from automobiles increase in cold weather.