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TOPIC 18-LEARNING OUTCOMES. NEURONS, SYNAPSES, AND SIGNALING 1. How does nervous system process info? 3 stages? a. Sensory input: detect external stimuli & internal conditions and transmit info along sensory neurons b. Integration: sensory info sent to brain, where interneurons integrate and process the info c. Motor output: motor output leaves the brain/ganglia by motor neurons, which trigger muscle/gland activity (response) 2. Difference between CNS & PNS a. CNS: integration here. Includes brain & nerve cord (spinal cord) b. PNS: leaves brain & spinal cord & travel certain areas of the body… the PNS brings info into & out of CNS 3. Parts of human neuron a. Cell body: most of neurons organelles (like nucleus) are here b. Dendrites: highly branched extensions of CB that receive signals from other neurons c. Axon: typically longer extension that transmits branches to other cells at synapses d. Axon hillock: where the axon joins the CB. Responsible for collecting electric signals from dendrites… if total electric signal strong enough, AP will fire e. Synapse: where NT leave the presynaptic cell(neuron) & move to the postsynaptic cell(neuron/muscle/gland). Junction between cells 4. Glia cells a. Nourish and insulate neurons. Help with structure & function of neurons 5. Types of glia cells a. Astrocytes b. Oligodendrocytes c. Shwann cells 6. Astrocytes a. In CNS, give structural support & nutrients for neurons b. Induce formation of tight junctions between capillary cells which help form blood brain barrier (prevents large hydrophobic molecules like pathogens into cerebrospinal fluid, & allows small important stuff to pass) 7. Oligodendrocytes a. In CNS, form myelin sheaths around axcons of vertebrate neyrons b. Provide electrical insulation of axon 8. Shwann cells a. In PNS, form myelin sheaths around axons of vertebrate neyrons b. Provide electrical insulation of axon 9. MS a. Multiple sclerosis, an autoimmune disease in which myelin sheaths gradually
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  • Spring '14
  • c. Axon, B. Axon Hillock, d. Axon

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