topic 4 learning outcomes.docx

topic 4 learning outcomes.docx - 1 asexual reproduction in...

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1. asexual reproduction in eukaryotes a. mitosis 2. asexual reproduction in prokaryotes a. binary fission 3. asexual reproduction a. cell division. Genetically daughter cells identical compared to mother cell 4. sexual reproduction a. genetically non-identical daughter cells compared to mother cell 5. sexual reproduction in eukaryotes a. meiosis 6. sexual reproduction in prokaryotes a. transformation b. transduction c. conjugation 7. transformation a. prokaryote takes up DNA found within environment that has originated from other prokaryotes 8. transduction a. prokaryote is infected by virus which injects short pieces of chromosomal DNA from one bacterium to another 9. conjugation a. DNA transferred between prokaryotes by sex pilus 10. Cells genome a. Cells total genetic information. b. Can consist of one or many DNA molecules 11. Chromatin a. Form of chromosome when cell isn’t dividing. Long thin fiber 12. Chromosome a. Single long double helix of DNA wrapped around proteins called histones 13. Somatic cells a. Non-reproductive cells b. Have 2 sets of chromosomes c. Mitosis leads to the generation of this 14. Gametic cells 15. Sister chromatids a. Replicated chromosomes put together. They separate in cell division 16. Centromere a. Narrow ‘waist’ of duplicated chromosome. 2 chromosomes closely attached 17. Cohesins a. Protein rings that hold sister chromatids together 18. Condensins
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a. Protein rings along length of chromosome that compact chromosomes before cell division 19. 2 parts of cell cycle? a. Mitotic (M) phase (mitosis & cytokinesis) b. Interphase (cell growth & copying chromosomes for cell division 20. 3 subphases of interphase a. G1 phase: cell grows & carries out normal metabolism. Organelles duplicate b. S phase: DNA replication & chromosome duplication c. G2 phase: cell grows & prepares for mitosis 21. Mitotic spindle a. Apparatus of microtubules controlling chromosome movement during mitosis. (includes centrosomes, spindle microtubules, asters) 22. Centrosome a. Microtubule organizing centre b. Replication leads to 2 of these which then migrate to opposite ends of the cell & spindle microtubules grow out of them 23. Aster (astral microtubule) a. Radial array of short microtubules that extends from each centrosome.
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