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TOPIC 16-LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. Hormones? a. Chemical signals that are secreted into the circulatory system & communicate regulatory messages within the body b. Hormones reach all parts of body, but only target cells (receptors) respond c. Mediate responses to stimuli & regulate stuf 2. 5 ways signals are transmitted between animal cells a. Endocrine signaling b. Paracrine signaling c. Autocrine signaling d. Synaptic signaling e. Neuroendocrine signaling 3. Endocrine signaling a. Secreted molecules difuse into blood & trigger target cells anywhere in body 4. Paracrine signaling a. Secreted molecules difuse locally and trigger response to close cells 5. Autocrine signaling a. Secreted molecules difuse locally and trigger response in same cells that secrete them 6. Synaptic signaling a. NT difuse across synapses & trigger response in cells of target tissues (neurons, muscles, glands) 7. Neuroendocrine signaling a. Neurohormones difuse into blood & trigger target cells anywhere in body 8. Endocrine glands a. No duct. b. Secrete hormones directly into surrounding fluid (into extracellular fluid & difuse into blood) 9. Exocrine glands a. Have ducts b. Secrete substances onto body surfaces or into body cavities 10. 3 chemical classes of hormones a. Amino acid derivatives (structurally related to aa) b. Peptides & polypeptides c. Steroids 11. Amino acid derivates include? a. T3, T4, melatonin, norepinephrine, epinephrine 12. Peptides & polypeptides include? a. Oxytocin (OT), parathyroid hormone (PTH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroid releasing hormone (TRH), growth hormone (GH), prolactin (PRL), luteinizing hormone (LH), insulin, glucagon, calcitonin, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) 13. Water soluble hormone cellular response pathway
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TOPIC 16-LEARNING OUTCOMES a. Bind to cell-surface receptors. Alerts second messenger molecule inside cell. Activates enzymes & other proteins or influence gene expression (indirect response) b. Ex. Epinephrine has many efects in mediating short term stress. Binds to receptors on cell membrane of liver cells. Trigger release of secondary messenger molecules that activate enzymes & result in glucose in blood 14. Lipid soluble hormone cellular response pathway a. Difuse thru membrane of target cells to bind to intracellular receptors. b. Direct response upon binding to receptor… no secondary messengers c. Steroids, thyroid hromones, & vitamin D hormone enter target cells & bind to protein receptors in cyto/nuc. Protein receptor complexes then act as transcription factors in nucleus, regulating transcription of specific genes 15. Water soluble hormones examples a. Epinephrine (adrenaline), norepinephrine (noradrenaline), ADH, OT, TRH, PTH, GH, PRL, FSH, LH, TSH, ACTH, insulin, glucagon, calcitonin, erythropoietin (EPO) 16. Lipid soluble hormone examples a.
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