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TOPIC 13-LEARNING OUTCOMES 1. Define osmolarity a. Total solute concentration of solution expressed as molarity, that is, moles of solute per liter of solution. 2. Osmosis a. occurs when 2 solutions w selectively permeable membrane differ in osmolarity. Net flow of water is from hypo-osmotic sol’n to hyper-osmotic sol’n 3. osmolarity of human blood a. human blood: 300mOsm/L, & seawater: 1000mOsm/L 4. iso-osmotic a. if 2 solutions are iso-osmotic, movement of water is equal in both directions (so net movement is 0) 5. hypo-osmotic a. is less concentrated sol’n/lower osmotic pressure than other fluid b. water moves from this sol’n to hyper-osmotic sol’n around it 6. hyper-osmotic a. more concentrated sol’n/higher osmotic pressure than other fluid b. water moves into this sol’n from hypo-osmotic sol’n around it 7. osmoconformers a. consisting of only some marine animals (sponge/jellyfish) are iso-osmotic w their surroundings and do not regulate their osmolarity b. match body osmolarity to environment 8. osmoregulators a. expend energy to control water uptake in hypo-osmotic environment & loss in a hyper-osmotic environment (so they control the conc’n of water & solutes within bodies) b. regulate body osmolarity, maintaining constant internal conditions 9. stenohaline a. cannot tolerate substantial changes in external osmolarity 10. euryhaline a. can survive large fluctuations in external osmolarity 11. euryhaline osmoconformers ex? a. Barnacles & mussles. b. Continually covered and uncovered by ocean tides 12. Stenohaline osmoconformers ex? a. Spider crab 13. Stenohaline osmoregulator ex? a. Goldfish b. Can only survive in fresh water, not in salt water 14. Euryhaline osmoregulators ex? a. Sockeye salmon and striped bass b. These fish are born in freshwater, migrate to ocean and then return to same freshwater stream to spawn 15. Marine animals: what? Hypo/hyper issues & combat?
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TOPIC 13-LEARNING OUTCOMES a. Most invertebrates are osmoconformers & most vertebrates & some invertebrates are osmoregulators b. Body fluid is hypo-osmotic to external sea water c. Issues: lose water (osmosis) & gain salt (diffusion) d. To combat water loss they gain water from incessant drinking seawater & food intake, & kidneys excrete highly concentrated urine e. To combat salt gain, kidneys get rid of divalent ions & gills actively pump monovalent ions & wastes f. LOOK AT PICS ON SLIDE & UNDERSTAND
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  • Spring '14
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