History 105-501History of the U.S.Chapter 1+2October 12, 1492 – Columbus sails to America! The Columbian Exchange occurs. Exchange of culture, plant life and animalsVikings were actually the first to discover Americas, and the first to have it on record. To Columbus’s deathbed he believed he had only landed on the outlying islands of India. Throvald Eriksson and a group of Norseman landed on the Americas around Canada and New Found land. Records were lost from the Vikings since they did not have a lasting impact on the Americas. The failed due to hostel natives.Columbus technically did not discover America due to the Vikings and the Native Americans. Native Americans crossed the Behring Strait. 11,000 to 16,000 years ago by a land bridge connecting Asia and North America. It was a piece of Land about 1,000 miles wide called Berengia. It was for a short time that the ocean level dropped to reveal this bridge. After the Native Americans crossed Berengia, they moved south to the continental US and to Mexico, Central America then South America. After a period of time, the land bridge closes.When the Europeans arrived, they misunderstood the Native American settlements and people. They don’t see their farming techniques or settlements. In New England, they hunted and gathered.Three main grown crops were grown in the south. Corn Beans and Squash-the three sisters were usually grown in one field together. The corn grew in stalks, the beans grew up the stalk and the squash or pumpkins covered the ground. Europeans saw this as messy and thought it was unsophisticated. The Hohokam Indians•Sophisticated people living in the southwest around 300 B.C. They flourished well in the Desert parts of Arizona. They had extensive irrigation canals which would bring water up to hundreds of miles. Cahokia
•An Indian city located close to the present day St. Louis. It was once a city of about 20,000 people. A settlement that rose and fell long before Columbus came. It fell around the year 13,000. The people at Cahokia were mound builders. Cahokia was mainly a trading center for the Continental North America. The Europeans had no idea that it ever had existed. October 12, 1492 – Columbus Lands•A controversial issue due to it having such a great impact on the Native Americans. •Reason of travel, there was a growth of learning in Europe due to the printing press!•Due to the boom of knowledge, there was an urge to explore what they did not know. •12thcentury, the magnetic compass was invented. •Astrolabe and Cross-staff were two inventions that found stars and lines of latitude and possible for exploration over large plains. The lateen sail was invented and proved to be more efficient. The new ship designs were more stream-lined and narrower making them faster and easier to maneuver.