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PHC 121: INTRODUCTION TO BIOSTATISTICS FINAL EXAMINATION REVIEW BY JEHAN ALOTAIBI (2018)
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2 Otaibi, J CHAPTER 1: Introduction to the Research Process Why do we want to conduct research? We wish to answer interesting questions about the world. E.g. is smoking related to cancer? We conduct it to find evidence to help answer such questions. Research Process 1. Read relevant literature 2. Generate research idea 3. Generate research hypothesis 4. Design study 5. Conduct study 6. Analyze data 7. Decision about supports for hypothesis Benefits of knowledge of previous research for researchers planning to conduct their own research 1. Can see how others tackled similar research questions 2. Guide the choice of research questions 3. Whether or not they might be heading up to a blind alley or if it was already answered Difference between research question and research hypothesis Research question = may be a little vague in nature e.g. is there a link between personality and ability to quit smoking? Research hypothesis = should be much more precise e.g. whether there is a relationship between neuroticism and ability to quit smoking Variables We might have a concept of health or illness When we conduct research, we have to operationalize these concepts into something that we can observe and measure These measured concepts are called variables Types of variables 1. Categorical variables 2. Numerical variables (discrete and continuous) Research Design - Experimental design (describes the variation of info under hypothesized conditions) - Correlational design (how one variable change as another one changes) - Single-case design - Between-group design (different participants in each condition you are comparing) - Within-group design (comparing one group of people across a number of different tasks)
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3 Otaibi, J CHAPTER 3: Descriptive Statistics Purpose of descriptive statistics To get to know our data To be able to describe data to someone else Measures of central tendency Mean = average / add up all scores in the dataset and divide by the total no. of scores Median = central tendency that is not influenced by extreme values (middle score) Mode = most frequently occurring score Range = difference between minimum and maximum scores Quartile range = splits the data into 4 quartiles Interquartile range ( IQR ) = third quartile first quartile Graphical representation of data Bar charts Line graphs Frequency histogram Box-plots Difference between research question and research hypothesis Research questions are used to highlight and investigate a topic. These are basically written as questions and is by nature is inquisitive. Research questions are basically concise, clear and properly written. Research questions can be causal, descriptive or comparative.
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