central nervous system.ppt - CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM “Cogito...

This preview shows page 1 - 20 out of 55 pages.

CENTRAL NERVOUSSYSTEM“Cogito ergosum.”“I think, therefore I am”René Descartes1596-1650Eva K. Polston, Ph.D.Dept. of Physiology & Biophysics[email protected]202806-6337TextBook:Silverthorn“Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach”Chapter9
 Distinguish between the CNS and the PNS. Compare and contrast “gray matter” and “white matter”. Name the four types of  glial cells and describe their functions. Describe structures that protect the CNS and their specific functions. Identify the major structures of the CNS (brain and spinal cord). List the basic functions of the major CNS structures and describe neurological diseases that result from damage to CNS structures. List the 12 pairs of cranial nerves and their basic functions. Describe the anatomy and basic function of the spinal cord.LECTURE OBJECTIVES
NEURONS AND GLIA
NEURONS AND SYNAPSESNeuronal processes (axons and dendrites) provide synapticconnectivity within the CNS and between the CNS and the periphery.The human brain contains ~ 100 billion neurons that form trillions ofsynaptic connections.
NEURONS ANDSYNAPSESREVIEWAxonSomaDendritesTerminals(boutons)
TYPES OF GLIAL CELLSAstrocytes: Provide structural support, maintain proper environmentOligodendrocytes:Provide myelin sheath for axons.“White matter”Microglia:Neuroimmune responsesEpendymal:Line ventricular wall, nutrient exchange between blood and CSF
NAVIGATING THE CNSCaudalCaudalRostralRostralDorsal (superior)Dorsal(posterior)Ventral(inferior)Ventral(anterior) Rostral: towards the nose Caudal:  towards the tail Ventral:  towards the undersideor belly Dorsal:  towards the outersideor back Superior:  above Inferior:  below
GROSS ANATOMY OF THEBRAIN
GYRUSSULCUSGROSS ANATOMYGYRI AND SULCI
GROSS ANATOMYEXTERNAL STRUCTURESTemporallobeOccipitallobeParietallobeFrontal lobeCerebellumMedulla oblongataPons
(Auditory Nerve)GROSS ANATOMYCRANIAL NERVES12 pairs of cranial nervesControl sensory and motor function for the head and neck
GROSS ANATOMYGRAY MATTER AND WHITEMATTERWhite matter(axons)Gray matter(cell bodies)
CerebrumLateral ventriclesThird ventricleFourth ventricleCentral canalGROSS ANATOMYVENTRICULAR SYSTEM
GROSS ANATOMYCORPUS COLLOSUMLEFTHEMISPHERERIGHTHEMISPHERELONGITUDINAL FISSURE
GROSS ANATOMYCORPUS COLLOSUMThecorpus collosumis a massive fiber (axon)tract that connects the two cerebral hemispheres.
PROTECTING THE CNSSKULL (CRANIUM)VERTEBRAL COLUMNMENINGIESCEREBRAL SPINAL FLUID (CSF)BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER (BBB)
Body ofvertebraeArachnoidmembranePia materDura materPROTECTING THE CNS:BONES AND MENINGESPia mater (dear mother)Arachnoid membrane (spidery)Dura mater (tough mother)Skull, vertebrae
PROTECTING THE CNS:CEREBROSPINAL FLUIDChoroid plexusof third ventriclePia mater

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

End of preview. Want to read all 55 pages?

Upload your study docs or become a

Course Hero member to access this document

Term
Fall
Professor
UMUC
Tags

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture

  • Left Quote Icon

    Student Picture