handout 3.1 (ch. 16) immunization and communicable diseases.pptx

Handout 3.1 (ch. 16) immunization and communicable diseases.pptx

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NURS 307 Week 3 Immunizations and Communicable Diseases Textbook chapter 16
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Immunizations Vaccine: a substance that introduces an antigen into the body Types of vaccines Killed virus Toxoid Live virus Recombinant Conjugated
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Immunizations Active immunity Antibody production is stimulated, prepares child for any future exposure Passive immunity Maternal antibodies transferred through placenta or breastmilk, limited protections that only lasts a few months
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CDC Vaccine Schedule
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Vaccine Schedule, USMLE Shortcuts B Hep B D Dtap R Rota H HiB I Polio P Pneum o M MMR A Hep A V Varicell a Tada Tdap Human HPV Men Mening In Influ B 2 4 6 1-1.5 4-6 11-12 14-16 B B D R H I P D R H I P B D R H I P In M A D H P V Very D I M Tada Huma n Men Men
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Pediatric Vaccines (table 16-1) (ATI table 35.1 and 35.2) Vaccine Type Notes DTaP, Tdap Inactivated Tetanus booster required for a contaminated wound or burn if last dose was >5 years ago May cause neurologic side effects Haemophilus influenzae Type B Inactivated Immunosuppressed children may require additional doses Hepatitis A Inactivated Hepatitis B Inactivated Check mother’s vaccination status, consider immunoglobulin and immediate vaccination Human Papillomaviru s Recombinant Administer before sexual activity Contraindicated with yeast allergy or pregnancy Influenza Inactivated or live attenuated Contraindicated with egg allergy Postpone LAIV if congestion is present Must be 2 years of age to receive LAIV
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Pediatric Vaccines (table 16-1) Vaccine Type Notes Measles, Mumps, Rubella (MMR) Live attenuated Contraindicated with neomycin allergy or pregnancy (avoid pregnancy for 28 days after) Ask about immune suppression Meningococca l Conjugate Immunosuppressed children may require additional doses Pneumococca l Conjugate Poliovirus Inactivated Contraindicated with allergy to neomycin, streptomycin, polymyxin B, pregnancy Rotavirus Live Contraindicated with history of intussusception Ask about immunodeficiency Varicella Live attenuated Contraindicated with allergy to neomycin or gelatin Contraindicated if pregnant, avoid pregnancy for 3 months after vaccination Ask about immunosuppression
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Reactions After Vaccinations Common Local reactions at the injection site Erythema, swelling, pain, and induration Systematic reactions Fever, fussiness, or irritability, malaise and anorexia Anxious adolescents may have syncope or a vasovagal reaction within 15 minutes of immunization Severe Allergic reactions Wheal and urticarial, within minutes to hours Severe local allergic reaction Warmth, erythema, edema, petechiae, or ulceration , 2-8 hours after Anaphylaxis Life-threatening, hypotension, generalized urticaria, angioedema, and laryngeal edema
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Various Thoughts About Vaccines Same brand should be used for all doses if possible Some vaccines have to be shaken before use, refrigerated, frozen, or protected from light If a vaccine and immune globulin have to be
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