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Date: Thursday, October 26th. The two midterms will ask different questions but the topic of each question will be similar. In being fair to both groups of students (Oct. 24 and 26), the grade average of the two exams will be scaled to the same level – the higher average of the two exams. Format: Answer any 10 of the following 15 questions. If you answer more than 10 questions, your best 10 will be counted. Please keep your response to each question within the space provided by the box. These questions are graded on an integral schedule of 0 marks (complete miss), 1 mark (addresses some of the question), 2 marks (well addresses the question), 3 marks (excellent and complete answer). Question 1: The "Big Bang" is our current best model for the origin and evolution of the Universe. Sequentially, starting with the moment of the "Big Bang" very briefly explain the evolution of the Universe. Address the formation of matter, expansion, cooling and the first cycle of stellar formation. Answer:
g)The protostar continued to grow, pulling in more mass and creating a denser core. Temperatures soared to 10 million degrees. At these temps, hydrogen nuclei fused to create helium. With the start of nuclear fusion, the protostar “ignited.” h)Nebulae from wh i)ich first-generation stars formed consisted entirely of light elements (H, He, traces of Li, Be, B). These first-generation stars exhausted H fuel rapidly. As the stars became H-starved, they initiated: Collapse and heating. Catastrophic supernova. Note that within stars, H is completely ionized to leave the proton or deuteron nucleus. *There’s more but the question only suggests to answer to first-generation star formation. Following is the list of topicsfor the next 14 questions. The remaining midterm topics will be restricted to questions concerning: 1)Cascadia subduction zone off the west coast of Canada a.North American plate moves towards Juan de Fuca plate at 1.5cm/year b.