Midterm review notes.docx

Midterm review notes.docx - Drug names chemical trade...

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Drug names: - chemical, trade, - generic = endings > group; ~caine> local anesthetics, ~mab: monoclonal antibody, designed to target tumors and some autoimmune diseases; ~vir: antiviral drug; ~amivir: neuroaminidase inhibitor Terms: pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, therapeutic, indications, contraindications Drug Effect :-- graphing - Normal distribution - Cumulative curve - Effective dose 50 - Dose response curve – threshold and ceiling dose > possible to be used to determine ED50 - Quantifying side effects and toxicity: ED50, TD50, LD50 o Therapeutic index: TD50 / ED50 ; safety factors: TD1 / ED99 o Therapeutic window: o Biovariability: benefit outlier, toxicity outlier o >> depend on pharmacodynamics * pharmacokinetics * individual biological properties / variations Pharmacogenetics Polymorphic Distribution >consequences: 1) altered drug effects between individuals, 2) altered sensitivity to drug interactions and different stereoselective variants 3) altered production of active metabolites Example: Cytochrome P450 2D6, Catalyzes the primary metabolism of certain drugs Codeine > metabolized by 2D6 into morphine Beta-blockers > anti-hypertension Tricyclic antidepressants Inhibited by fluoxetine, haloperidol, paroxetine and quinidine o Poor metabolizer > increased risk for toxicity
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Different age group: o Pregnant women & prenatal o Pediatric o Geriatric Metabolizing enzyme: o Ex. Alcohol dehydrogenase; which break down ethanol into acetaldehyde, >other enzyme > acetic acid ** alcohol dehydrogenase is found in cytosol of hepatocytes. Pharmacokinetics Method of administration Notes – C : character; U: when use this method; A: absorption Oral C: easiest, cheapest, most convenient, can be used as modified release – long acting A: Stomach / SI > portal system > liver (U: some go through the mentalization -- bioavailability) Parenteral A: reliable amount into circulation by pass first metab; SQ, IM, IV, intraperitoneal, CSF Inhalation A: 1) directly in to the lungs > circulations, 2) nasal membrane ie cocaine Topical A: skin, mucosa, AKA: dermal method. Ie
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