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**Unformatted text preview: **A Story of Ratios® Eureka Math™
Grade 7, Module 2 Teacher Edition Published by the non-profit Great Minds
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10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 A STORY OF RATIOS 7 GRADE Mathematics Curriculum
GRADE 7 • MODULE 2 Table of Contents1 Rational Numbers
Module Overview .................................................................................................................................................. 3
Topic A: Addition and Subtraction of Integers and Rational Numbers (7.NS.A.1) .............................................. 19
Lesson 1: Opposite Quantities Combine to Make Zero .......................................................................... 21
Lesson 2: Using the Number Line to Model the Addition of Integers .................................................... 32
Lesson 3: Understanding Addition of Integers ....................................................................................... 41
Lesson 4: Efficiently Adding Integers and Other Rational Numbers ...................................................... 50
Lesson 5: Understanding Subtraction of Integers and Other Rational Numbers ................................... 62
Lesson 6: The Distance Between Two Rational Numbers ...................................................................... 72
Lesson 7: Addition and Subtraction of Rational Numbers ..................................................................... 81
Lessons 8–9: Applying the Properties of Operations to Add and Subtract Rational Numbers .............. 89
Topic B: Multiplication and Division of Integers and Rational Numbers (7.NS.A.2) ......................................... 115
Lesson 10: Understanding Multiplication of Integers .......................................................................... 117
Lesson 11: Develop Rules for Multiplying Signed Numbers ................................................................. 125
Lesson 12: Division of Integers ............................................................................................................. 133
Lesson 13: Converting Between Fractions and Decimals Using Equivalent Fractions ......................... 142
Lesson 14: Converting Rational Numbers to Decimals Using Long Division ........................................ 149
Lesson 15: Multiplication and Division of Rational Numbers ............................................................... 159
Lesson 16: Applying the Properties of Operations to Multiply and Divide Rational Numbers ............ 170
Mid-Module Assessment and Rubric ................................................................................................................ 184
Topics A through B (assessment 1 day, return 1 day, remediation or further applications 1 day)
Topic C: Applying Operations with Rational Numbers to Expressions and Equations (7.NS.A.3,
7.EE.A.2, 7.EE.B.4a) ............................................................................................................................. 201
Lesson 17: Comparing Tape Diagram Solutions to Algebraic Solutions ............................................... 203
Lessons 18–19: Writing, Evaluating, and Finding Equivalent Expressions with Rational Numbers ..... 218
Lesson 20: Investments—Performing Operations with Rational Numbers ......................................... 241
1Each lesson is ONE day, and ONE day is considered a 45-minute period. Module 2: Rational Numbers This work is derived from Eureka Math ™ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 -Great Minds. eureka math.org
G7-M2-TE-1.3.0-05.2015 1 Module Overview A STORY OF RATIOS 7•2 Lesson 21: If-Then Moves with Integer Number Cards ........................................................................ 252
Lessons 22–23: Solving Equations Using Algebra ................................................................................. 263
End-of-Module Assessment and Rubric ............................................................................................................ 284
Topics A through C (assessment 1 day, return 1 day, remediation or further applications 2 days) Module 2: Rational Numbers This work is derived from Eureka Math ™ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 -Great Minds. eureka math.org
G7-M2-TE-1.3.0-05.2015 2 Module Overview A STORY OF RATIOS 7•2 Grade 7 • Module 2 Rational Numbers
OVERVIEW
In Grade 6, students formed a conceptual understanding of integers through the use of the number line,
absolute value, and opposites and extended their understanding to include the ordering and comparing of
rational numbers (6.NS.C.5, 6.NS.C.6, 6.NS.C.7). This module uses the Integer Game: a card game that
creates a conceptual understanding of integer operations and serves as a powerful mental model students
can rely on during the module. Students build on their understanding of rational numbers to add, subtract,
multiply, and divide signed numbers. Previous work in computing the sums, differences, products, and
quotients of fractions and decimals serves as a significant foundation as well.
In Topic A, students return to the number line to model the addition and subtraction of integers (7.NS.A.1).
They use the number line and the Integer Game to demonstrate that an integer added to its opposite equals
zero, representing the additive inverse (7.NS.A.1a, 7.NS.A.1b). Their findings are formalized as students
develop rules for adding and subtracting integers, and they recognize that subtracting a number is the same
as adding its opposite (7.NS.A.1c). Real-life situations are represented by the sums and differences of signed
numbers. Students extend integer rules to include the rational numbers and use properties of operations to
perform rational number calculations without the use of a calculator (7.NS.A.1d).
Students develop the rules for multiplying and dividing signed numbers in Topic B. They use the properties of
operations and their previous understanding of multiplication as repeated addition to represent the
multiplication of a negative number as repeated subtraction (7.NS.A.2a). Students make analogies to the
Integer Game to understand that the product of two negative numbers is a positive number. From earlier
grades, they recognize division as the inverse process of multiplication. Thus, signed number rules for division
are consistent with those for multiplication, provided a divisor is not zero (7.NS.A.2b). Students represent the
division of two integers as a fraction, extending product and quotient rules to all rational numbers. They
realize that any rational number in fractional form can be represented as a decimal that either terminates in
0s or repeats (7.NS.A.2d). Students recognize that the context of a situation often determines the most
appropriate form of a rational number, and they use long division, place value, and equivalent fractions to
fluently convert between these fractions and decimal forms. Topic B concludes with students multiplying and
dividing rational numbers using the properties of operations (7.NS.A.2c).
In Topic C, students problem-solve with rational numbers and draw upon their work from Grade 6 with
expressions and equations (6.EE.A.2, 6.EE.A.3, 6.EE.A.4, 6.EE.B.5, 6.EE.B.6, 6.EE.B.7). They perform
operations with rational numbers (7.NS.A.3), incorporating them into algebraic expressions and equations.
They represent and evaluate expressions in multiple forms, demonstrating how quantities are related
(7.EE.A.2). The Integer Game is revisited as students discover if-then statements, relating changes in player’s
hands (who have the same card-value totals) to changes in both sides of a number sentence. Students
translate word problems into algebraic equations and become proficient at solving equations of the form + = and ( + ) = , where , , and , are specific rational numbers (7.EE.B.4a). As they become
Module 2: Rational Numbers This work is derived from Eureka Math ™ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 -Great Minds. eureka math.org
G7-M2-TE-1.3.0-05.2015 3 Module Overview A STORY OF RATIOS 7•2 fluent in generating algebraic solutions, students identify the operations, inverse operations, and order of
steps, comparing these to an arithmetic solution. Use of algebra to represent contextual problems continues
in Module 3.
This module is comprised of 23 lessons; 7 days are reserved for administering the Mid- and End-of-Module
Assessments, returning the assessments, and remediating or providing further applications of the concepts.
The Mid-Module Assessment follows Topic B, and the End-of-Module Assessment follows Topic C. Focus Standards
Apply and extend previous understandings of operations with fractions to add, subtract,
multiply, and divide rational numbers.
7.NS.A.1 Apply and extend previous understandings of addition and subtraction to add and subtract
rational numbers; represent addition and subtraction on a horizontal or vertical number line
diagram.
a. Describe situations in which opposite quantities combine to make 0. For example, a
hydrogen atom has 0 charge because its two constituents are oppositely charged. b. Understand + as the number located a distance || from , in the positive or negative
direction depending on whether is positive or negative. Show that a number and its
opposite have a sum of 0 (are additive inverses). Interpret sums of rational numbers by
describing real‐world contexts. c. Understand subtraction of rational numbers as adding the additive inverse, − = + (−). Show that the distance between two rational numbers on the number line is
the absolute value of their difference, and apply this principle in real‐world contexts. d. Apply properties of operations as strategies to add and subtract rational numbers. 7.NS.A.2 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division and of fractions to
multiply and divide rational numbers.
a. Understand that multiplication is extended from fractions to rational numbers by
requiring that operations continue to satisfy the properties of operations, particularly the
distributive property, leading to products such as (−1)(−1) = 1 and the rules for
multiplying signed numbers. Interpret products of rational numbers by describing real‐
world contexts.
b. Understand that integers can be divided, provided that the divisor is not zero, and every
quotient of integers (with non‐zero divisor) is a rational number. If and are integers,
then −(/) = (−)/ = /(−). Interpret quotients of rational numbers by describing
real‐world contexts. c. Apply properties of operations as strategies to multiply and divide rational numbers. d. Convert a rational number to a decimal using long division; know that the decimal form of
a rational number terminates in 0s or eventually repeats.
Module 2: Rational Numbers This work is derived from Eureka Math ™ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 -Great Minds. eureka math.org
G7-M2-TE-1.3.0-05.2015 4 Module Overview A STORY OF RATIOS 7•2 7.NS.A.3 Solve real‐world and mathematical problems involving the four operations with rational
numbers. 2 Use properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions.
7.EE.A.2 3 Understand that rewriting an expression in different forms in a problem context can shed light
on the problem and how the quantities in it are related. For example, + 0.05 = 1.05
means that “increase by 5%” is the same as “multiply by 1.05.” Solve real‐life and mathematical problems using numerical and algebraic expressions and
equations. 7.EE.B.4 4 Use variables to represent quantities in a real‐world or mathematical problem, and construct
simple equations and inequalities to solve problems by reasoning about the quantities.
a. Solve word problems leading to equations of the form + = and ( + ) = ,
where , , and are specific rational numbers. Solve equations of these forms fluently.
Compare an algebraic solution to an arithmetic solution, identifying the sequence of the
operations used in each approach. For example, the perimeter of a rectangle is 54 cm. Its
length is 6 cm. What is its width? Foundational Standards Use equivalent fractions as a strategy to add and subtract fractions.
5.NF.A.1 Add and subtract fractions with unlike denominators (including mixed numbers) by replacing
given fractions with equivalent fractions in such a way as to produce an equivalent sum or
difference of fractions with like denominators. For example, 2/3 + 5/4 = 8/12 + 15/12 =
23/12. (In general, / + / = ( + )/.) Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to multiply and
divide fractions.
5.NF.B.3 Interpret a fraction as division of the numerator by the denominator (/ = ÷ ). Solve
word problems involving division of whole numbers leading to answers in the form of
fractions or mixed numbers, e.g., by using visual fraction models or equations to represent the
problem. For example, interpret 3/4 as the result of dividing 3 by 4, noting that 3/4
multiplied by 4 equals 3, and that when 3 wholes are shared equally among 4 people each
person has a share of size 3/4. If 9 people want to share a 50-pound sack of rice equally by
weight, how many pounds of rice should each person get? Between what two whole numbers
does your answer lie? 2Computations with rational numbers extend the rules for manipulating fractions to complex fractions.
this module, this standard is applied to expressions with rational numbers in them.
4In this module, the equations include negative rational numbers.
3In Module 2: Rational Numbers This work is derived from Eureka Math ™ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 -Great Minds. eureka math.org
G7-M2-TE-1.3.0-05.2015 5 Module Overview A STORY OF RATIOS 5.NF.B.4 7•2 Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication to multiply a fraction or whole
number by a fraction.
a. Interpret the product (/) × as parts of a partition of into equal parts;
equivalently, as the result of a sequence of operations × ÷ . For example, use a
visual fraction model to show (2/3) × 4 = 8/3, and create a story context for this
equation. Do the same with (2/3) × (4/5) = 8/15. (In general, (/) × (/) =
/.) Apply and extend previous understandings of multiplication and division to divide fractions
by fractions.
6.NS.A.1 Interpret and compute quotients of fractions, and solve word problems involving division of
fractions by fractions, e.g., by using visual fraction models and equations to represent the
problem. For example, create a story context for (2/3) ÷ (3/4) and use a visual fraction
model to show the quotient; use the relationship between multiplication and division to
explain that (2/3) ÷ (3/4) = 8/9 because 3/4 of 8/9 is 2/3. (In general, (/) ÷ (/) =
/.) How much chocolate will each person get if 3 people share 1/2 lb of chocolate
equally? How many 3/4-cup servings are in 2/3 of a cup of yogurt? How wide is a
rectangular strip of land with length 3/4 mi and area 1/2 square mi? Compute fluently with multi-digit numbers and find common factors and multiples.
6.NS.B.3 Fluently add, subtract, multiply, and divide multi-digit decimals using the standard algorithm
for each operation. Apply and extend previous understandings of numbers to the system of rational numbers.
6.NS.C.5 6.NS.C.6 6.NS.C.7 Understand that positive and negative numbers are used together to describe quantities
having opposite directions or values (e.g., temperature above/below zero, elevation
above/below sea level, credits/debits, positive/negative electric charge); use positive and
negative numbers to represent quantities in real‐world contexts, explaining the meaning of 0
in each situation.
Understand a rational number as a point on the number line. Extend number line diagrams
and coordinate axes familiar from previous grades to represent points on the line and in the
plane with negative number coordinates. a. Recognize opposite signs of numbers as indicating locations on opposite sides of 0 on the
number line; recognize that the opposite of the opposite of a number is the number itself,
e.g., −(−3) = 3, and that 0 is its own opposite.
Understand ordering and absolute value of rational numbers. c. Understand the absolute value of a rational number as its distance from 0 on the number
line; interpret absolute value as magnitude for a positive or negative quantity in a real‐
world situation. For example, for an account balance of −30 dollars, write |−30| = 30 to
describe the size of the debt in dollars. Module 2: Rational Numbers This work is derived from Eureka Math ™ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 -Great Minds. eureka math.org
G7-M2-TE-1.3.0-05.2015 6 Module Overview A STORY OF RATIOS 7•2 Apply and extend previous understandings of arithmetic to algebraic expressions.
6.EE.A.2 Write, read, and evaluate expressions in which letters stand for numbers.
a. Write expressions that record operations with numbers and with letters standing for
numbers. For example, express the calculation “Subtract from 5” as 5 − . b. Identify parts of an expression using mathematical terms (sum, term, product, factor
quotient, coefficient); view one or more parts of an expression as a single entity. For
example, describe the expression 2 (8 + 7) as a product of two factors; view (8 + 7) as
both a single entity and a sum of two terms. 6.EE.A.3 6.EE.A.4 c. Evaluate expressions at specific values of their variables. Include expressions that arise
from formulas used in real‐world problems. Perform arithmetic operations, including
those involving whole‐number exponents, in the conventional order when there are no
parentheses to specify a particular order (Order of Operations). For example, use the
formulas = 3 and = 6 2 to find the volume and surface area of a cube with sides of
length = 1/2. Apply the properties of operations to generate equivalent expressions. For example, apply
the distributive property to the expression 3 (2 + ) to produce the equivalent expression
6 + 3; apply the distributive property to the expression 24 + 18 to produce the equivalent
expression 6 (4 + 3); apply properties of operations to + + to produce the equivalent
expression 3. Identify when two expressions are equivalent (i.e., when the two expressions name the same
number regardless of which value is substituted into them). For example, the expressions + + and 3 are equivalent because they name the same number regardless of which
number stands for. Reason about and solve one‐variable equations and inequalities.
6.EE.B.6 Use variables to represent numbers and write expressions when solving a real‐world or
mathematical problem; understand that a variable can represent an unknown number, or,
depending on the purpose at hand, any number in a specified set. 6.EE.B.7 Solve real‐world and mathematical problems by writing and solving equations of the form + = and = for cases in which , and are all nonnegative rational numbers. Module 2: Rational Numbers This work is derived from Eureka Math ™ and licensed by Great Minds. ©2015 -Great Minds. eureka math.org
G7-M2-TE-1.3.0-05.2015 7 Module Overview A STORY OF RATIOS 7•2 Focus Standards for Mathematical Practice
MP.1 Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. When problem-solving, students
use a variety of techniques to make sense of a situation involving rational numbers. For
example, they may draw a number line and use arrows to model and make sense of an integer
addition or subtraction problem. Or when converting between forms of rational numbers,
students persevere in carrying out the long division algorithm to determine a decimal’s repeat
pattern. A tape diagram may be constructed as an entry point to make se...

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