Peds Test 1 (Children and families).pdf

Peds Test 1 (Children and families).pdf - CHAPTER 1...

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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW OF PEDIATRIC NURSING MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. Which of the following major problems results from the denial of preventive services (such as prenatal care, dental care, and immunizations) to any given population? a. spiraling costs for emergency medical services b. health maintenance organizations losing money c. extensive waiting lists for clinic health care services d. ANS: A closing of small community hospitals Feedback A B C C Correct: Children who live in poverty have diminshed phy care than nonpoor children. Therefore, they experience a Incorrect: Lack of education and skills are at the root of po D children. Yet, poverty is the major factor that increases th PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 Poverty OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension 4. The children who are at greatest risk of infant death are born: a. b. ANS: B to mothers under age 18 into families in poverty Feedback Correct: By denying preventive services minor health problems are not detected and treated early. Therefore, the problems beco more serious, often requiring treatment in acute care and emergency settings, Incorrect: a more Birth weight expensive is the approach major determinant than prevention. of infant A Adolescent pregnancy is associated with low birth weight Incorrect: The rationale for health maintenance organizations (HMOs) is to provide preventive services by a primary care provide contain costs. If individuals have to be treated in the more costly acute Correct: or emergency Racial settings disparities forexist problems for infant which mortality. could have Thebee IM detected earlier, the HMOs may lose money. However this is not the most rateimportant of low birth problem weightresulting infants born fromtodenial minority of preventive mothers. services. than whites are poor in the United States. Women who liv B care which are vital during pregnancy. Incorrect: Preventive services are provided in clinic settings. However, if these services are denied, individuals will be utilizing clin less frequently, thereby, reducing waiting lists. C Incorrect: Infant mortality rate is higher for mothers over D Incorrect: Denial of preventive servicdes should not have anyDeffect on Incorrect: small community Although hospitals. substance abuse such as alcohol does PTS: 1 REF: p. 5 Immigrants PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 Poverty OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension OBJ: Cognitive Level: Application 2. Poverty rates are highest in which of the following types of 5. The chance that a child will have to repeat a grade in families? school or be placed in special education classes: a. b. ANS: B two-parent a. c. is the adoptive same for the general population, regardless of circu single-parent b. d. depends fostermainly on the quality of the schools and the teac c. increases a small amount for each year the child lives in p Feedback d. depends mainly on whether the child has moved during t Incorrect: Poverty rates in two-parent families are much lower ANS: Cthan those in families headed by a single parent. The potential ex A for both parents to work which would increase household income. Feedback Correct: Almost half of all poor children live in single-parent (usually women) households. The risk of poverty is high for the follo Incorrect: School achievement declines with the time a ch reasons: low wages for women, low educational attainment for single mothers, and low rates and levels of child support from grade or be placed in special education classes. A child liv B fathers. A child in the general population. C Incorrect: When a child is adopted, there usually is adequate income to raise the individual at a decent living standard. Incorrect: Poor quality of schools and teachers may adver Incorrect: Foster parents are typically compensated and/or receive B public predictor benefits ofby a child statehaving or federal to repeat programs. a grade Poverty or beisplaced not an D issue in these families Correct: The chance a child will be retained in a grade or b PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 Poverty OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge C child lives in poverty. 3. Which of the following factors most increases the D Incorrect: Moving during the school year may affect a chil prevalence of illnesses such as asthma and anemia, as well as PTS: 1 REF: p. 6 Poverty respiratory and gastrointestinal infections? OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension a. household smokers c. poverty 6. The fastest-growing segment of the homeless population b. family history of these illnesses education consistsd.of which of the following groups? ANS: C a. alcoholics refusing treatment Feedback A B b. mentally ill people Incorrect: Household smokers may increase the prevalence of asthma and respiratory problems. However, second had smoke wi ANS: D not affect the prevalence of anemia or gastrointestional infections. Feedback Incorrect: Heredity plays a role in the etiology of asthma and other respiratory illnesses such as cystic fibrosis because these Incorrect: Many individuals become homeless because of disorders tend to appear in families. However, a family history of other illnesses such as anemia and gastrointestinal infections d A homeless population. not increase their prevalence. B C Incorrect: Mental illness is one reason for homelesssness,ANS: but mentally ill people are not the fastest growing segment of the homeless population. Feedback C Incorrect: In the past the homeless population primarily consisted of single Incorrect: males;Conduct however, disorder this is not is a true psychological today. disorder cha running away; violations of the rights of others, and overt Correct: Currently the fastest growing segment of the homeless consist of families with children, most commonly single mothers A depressed and anxious individuals (homeless children) do D with two or three children. Incorrect: Oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) is characte PTS: 1 REF: p. 7 Homelessness B behaviors, especially toward authority figures. OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension 7. Which of the following groups of people disproportionately Correct: Psychological problems identified most often am represents the homeless population? C trouble sleeping, delayed speech, shyness, withdrawl, and a. b. ANS: A A B C African Americans Hispanics Incorrect: Personality problems are manifested in behavio Caucasians D d. withAsians authority figures is a symptom of ODD. PTS: 1 REF: p. 8 Homelessness OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension Feedback 10. Because of their age, children are most likely to gain Correct: The homeless population is disproportionately represented African access to a by firearm in: Americans. Chronic and peristant multigeneration poverty is the primary driving force resulting in this groups homelessness. a. the home or the home of a friend or relative Incorrect: Caucasians poverty rate is the lowest among these racial and ethnic groups. b. a pawn shop Incorrect: Hispanics poverty rate at 21.5% as compared to 25.3% to the African American group is the second most likely c. a local gun dealer or a gun and knife show racial/ethnic group to be affected by homelessness. d. a sports store Incorrect: Asian population like the Caucasian population is 50% or more lesss likely to be entrapped in a chronic, persistent cycle ANS: A poverty. D PTS: 1 REF: p. 7 Homelessness OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension 8. A teacher confers with the school psychologist and the school nurse about a child who has poor attention span, aggressive behaviors, delayed speech, and shyness, and who tends to withdraw. This child often falls asleep in class, saying he is not sleeping at night. Which of the following situations or conditions is most likely to cause or contribute to the behavior exhibited by this child? a. sharing a room with a sibling b. attention deficit disorder with hyperactivity c. homelessness d. ANS: C narcolepsy Feedback A B c. Feedback A Correct: The presence of a gun in the home increases the used in these incidents are stored in the home of the victi B Incorrect: Natural barriers would preclude a children or a C Incorrect: Natural and legal barriers would preclude a chil gun and knife show. D Incorrect: Natural and legal barriers would preclude a chil PTS: 1 REF: p. 11 Violence OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension 11. The infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of infant deaths: a. during the first month of life for a given country b. during the first year of life per 1,000 live births c. compared to live births in a given location from natural causes the first year of life per 100 births Incorrect: Sharing a room with a sibling might result in sleepd. problems but none of the otherinbehaviors. B attention span and aggression but none of the other behavio Incorrect: ADHD is a physical disorder which may result inANS: the poor Feedback Correct: A homeless child is a child experiencing traumatic insecurity and will exhibit all cited behaviors and more. Incorrect: The first month of life is automatically included Incorrect: Narcolepsy is a physical disorder causing a child to fall asleep at any time but should not contribute to the other behav A nations. D cited in the situation. Correct: The international health care community has det PTS: 1 REF: p. 8 Homelessness B first year per 1,000 live births. The statistics are self repor OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension C 9. Psychological problems most often identified among homeless children are: a. b. c. d. C Incorrect: The statistic reports the number of infant death D Incorrect: The statistic reports deaths from all causes in th PTS: 1 REF: p. 12 Infant Mortality OBJ: Cognitive Level: oppositional defiant disorder Knowledge 12. Which of the following racial groups has the highest infant depression, anxiety, and behavioral problems mortality rate? personality problems and difficulty with authority figures a. Caucasians conduct disorder A PTS: 1 REF: Mortality OBJ: Cognitive Level: d. p. 13 Child African Americans Knowledge 16. For children under 1 year of age, what is the leading cause Feedback of unintentional injury-related deaths? Incorrect: Caucasians experience the lowest infant mortalitya.rate (IMR).motor vehicle occupant injury B Incorrect: Asians IMR is less than African Americans. b. ANS: D C Asians b. ANS: B Incorrect: American Indians IMR is less than African Americans. suffocation D Correct: The IMR for African Americans is twice the rate for Caucasians.Feedback Incorrect: The laws require children to be secured in child PTS: 1 REF: p. 13 Cultural Considerations box A group has declined. OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge 13. The United States has which of the following ranks among B Correct: Typical causes of suffocation include choking on the developed nations that have the lowest infant mortality C Incorrect: Parents rarely leave children under the age of 1 rates (IMRs)? a. A D c. Incorrect: 23 Fire codes and their enforcement has caused a PTS: 1 REF: p. 13 Child 17 d. 30 Mortality OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge 17. The leading causes of injury-related death for children Feedback aged 1 to 4 years is: Incorrect: The United States ranks 30th in the statistical rankings in 2008. a. reported choking and drowning B Incorrect: Seventeenth is better than 30th, but also incorrect. b. fires and burns C Incorrect: Twenty third is better than 30th, but also incorrect. c. fires and neglect b. ANS: D 1 D Correct: The United States ranks 30th in the statistical rankings in 2008. and motor vehicle occupant injury d. reporteddrowning PTS: 1 REF: p. 12 Infant Mortality OBJ: Cognitive Level: ANS: D Knowledge Feedback 14. At the beginning of the 20th century, the major cause of Incorrect: Choking is the leading cause of injury-related de child mortality for children aged 1 to 19 was: A over the age of 1. a. farm accidents c. infectious diseases B Incorrect: Fires and burns follow injury-related deaths by b. firearms d. industrial accidents Incorrect: Fires follow deaths by motor vehicle accident a ANS: C C means. Feedback Correct: As toddlers and young children become more mo A Incorrect: America has become increasingly urbanized over the 20th century with only a fraction of children being raised on a far D adult supervision. Deaths for children from motor vehicle B Incorrect: City life has reduced childrens exposure to firearms as compared to living on theOBJ: farm. PTS: 1 REF: p. 13 Child Mortality Cognitive Level: Knowledge Correct: At the beginning of the 20th century, people moved from the farms into the cities. As a result we live in closer and more 18. The leading cause of injury-related deaths in adolescents C crowded quarters, providing easy transmission for infectious diseases. aged 14 to 19 is by: D Incorrect: Child labor laws were enacted and enforced in the late 19th century. a. drowning PTS: 1 REF: p. 12 Child Mortality b. motor vehicle occupant injuries OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension 15. Today, which of the following causes of death accounts ANS: B for the majority of deaths in children ages 1 to 19? Feedback a. b. ANS: A unintentional injuries homicide B C D c. d. B Feedback A A suicide Incorrect. Adolescents are far less likely to drown than yo respiratory illnesses Correct. Adolescent inexperience driving and other risky b number one cause of unintentional injury deaths from ag C Incorrect. Although suicide becomes more prevalent in th Correct: Deaths from all diseases among children ages 1 to 19 are dwarfed by the number of children who die from unintentiona Incorrect. Although homicide becomes a larger percentag injuries. A nurse must conclude that some of these deaths from unintentional injuries may be preventable. D dramatically overshadowed by motor vehicle occupant in Incorrect: Homicide affects a minor portion of deaths among children ages 1 to 19. PTS: 1 REF: p. 13 Child Mortality OBJ: Cognitive Level: Knowledge Incorrect: Although suicide is more common among adolescents, it still represents a small fraction of deaths in this age group. 19. In the United States, which of the following occupations is Incorrect: Respiratory illnesses represent a minor cause ofthe death this age group. mostinhazardous? a. b. ANS: A agriculture mining c. d. d. ANS: B Professionals construction will set the parameters for information in th as needed. medical Feedback Feedback Incorrect. In family-centered care, a central tenet is the pr Correct. Farming and ranching remains a major family enterprise in America, and represents the most hazardous occupation. He control and self-efficacy. The information exchange must machinery, livestock, physical labor involving heavy lifting, pesticide and herbicide exposure, exposure to viral, bacterial and fung A members. A infections are on the short list of hazards. Children are more vulnerable to all these risks than are adults. Correct. Exchanging complete and unbiased information i B Incorrect. Agriculture surpassess mining and construction as the most hazardous occupation in the United States. B healthcare professionals is required. C Incorrect. Agriculture as more hazardous than construction in the United States. Incorrect. The family must exchange complete and unbias D Incorrect. Medical occupations are among the safest in the United States. C care provided will be compromised. PTS: 1 REF: p. 9 Migrant Farm Workers OBJ: Cognitive Level: Incorrect. Family-centered care is a process, with a beginn Knowledge D unbiased. 20. In 1987, the Association for the Care of Childrens Health PTS: 1 REF: p. 15 Family-Centered Care (ACCH) stated that paramount in the concept of familyOBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension centered care is meeting the ever-changing needs of: 23. The medical model directs health care professionals to a. the individual child c. roles of:the community follow the b. all family members the society a. d. advocate and advisor ANS: B b. teacher and director Feedback A B C ANS: C Incorrect. Family-centered care describes a philosophy of care that recognizes the centrality of the family in the childs life, the fa Feedback in its entirety, not the individual members. Incorrect. The medical model directs health care professio Correct. Meeting the ever-changing needs of all family members, not just those of theThis child, is is paramount theadvocate concept of fami A interventions. role in conflictto with and ad centered care. Incorrect. The medical model directs health care professio Incorrect. The community is a support to the family, and is not the concept of family-centered care. B critical to interventions. Incorrect. The society is the broader context to which the family belongs, but it is notmedical paramount the concept family-center Correct. The modeltodirects healthofcare profession D care. C interventions. PTS: 1 REF: p. 15 Family-Centered Care Incorrect. The medical model directs health care professio OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension D interventions. This position is in direct conflict with condit 21. One of the eight key elements of family-centered care PTS: 1 REF: p. 1 Family-Centered Care OBJ: Cognitive Level: states that the constant in a childs life is the: Knowledge a. church c. neighborhood 24. To empower caregivers of children to make decisions about their care, the health care provider most needs b. school d. childs family to: ANS: D . Feedback a. assess family decision making in the past b. provide needed education and knowledge for the family A Incorrect. The more central constant in any childs life using family-centered care is thethey family, the church. c. tell the family are not in charge of decisions B Incorrect. The most central constant in any childs life using family-centered caremake is thedifficult family,decisions not the school. d. initially and let the family make e C ANS: B Incorrect. The most central constant in any childs life using family-centered care is the family, not the neighborhood. Feedback Correct. Family-centered care assumes the first constant in a childs life is the family. D PTS: 1 REF: p. 16 Box 1-3 OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension 22. Which of the following describes the exchange of information between families and professionals in familycentered care? a. b. c. A Incorrect. Assessing previous or past family decision maki cannot inform them about choices they may face now or B Correct. For a family or caregivers to be informed about d and educated about the choices and the projected outcom Incorrect. Being in charge of decisions without knowing th Only medical information needs to be exchanged between professionals and the family when necessary. C accountability. Complete and unbiased information must be exchanged between professionals and family in a supportive manner at all times. D Incorrect. Empowering caregivers to make decisions inclu The family will decide what information they are comfortable with giving professionals. PTS: 1 REF: p. 17 the Advocate OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension 25. Placing no limits on the ages or numbers of visitors and providing sleeping facilities for the caregivers in a childs room in a health care facility will most likely bring which of the following results? a. The child will be more dependent on the family. b. There will be loss of rest by the child. c. Family-centered care will be enhanced. d. ANS: C Nurses will find procedures less difficult to carry out. PTS: 1 REF: p. 16 A traumatic Care OBJ: Cognitive Level: Comprehension 28. Which of the following actions by the nurse best exemplifies atraumatic care? a. using a eutectic mixture of local anesthetics (EMLA) cream b. requesting assignment to a general medical unit rather th c. handwashing when entering the room and before leaving d. ANS: A reverse isolation for the child who is immunologically com Feedback Feedback A Correct. Examples of atraumatic care include: 1) age-appr Incorrect. A central concept of family-centered care is to allow the family helping to be the more child in control to become of who familiar can come with the andhospital, go, who eq ca stay, making the child less depend...
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