1 17 08 - Sociology -The systematic and objective study of...

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Sociology -The systematic and objective study of human social interaction -It’s a science; it studies the observable in a systematic/unbiased manner -What it studies (human interaction) are patterned/repeated (rates) -Don’t dwell on exceptions to the patterns that scientists discover -What we think of as free will is much more susceptible and influenced than we realize -Looks at individuals and the cause of their behavior -Need dispositions, defense mechanisms, etc. -looks at groups of people and focuses on external factors/forces/constraints that operate on the individuals -When people interact, their behavior is affected by that interaction Ex: the likelihood that a kid will go to college based upon the social class of their family (not their skills/work ethic) is a structural situation Levels of analysis in sociology -Macro Level : development of the “sociological imagination” (C. Wright Mills; the use of the sociological perspective to appreciate what’s going on around you); understanding the social forces underlying behavior -downsizing, private troubles, social problems -Micro Level: Historical overview of science -Protestant Reformation (16 th century): prior, politics & religion were intertwined; sin=crime; religious perspective and control inhibited the growth of scientific inquiry -Luther 1530s-40s -Calvin 1540s-50s -Protestants rebel against Catholic Church -Effects: weakened political regimes, and gives more fertile environment to science (Galileo 1610-30s, Newton 1717-20s) -In order for science to grow, it needs to be free from ideology -The Enlightenment (Age of Reason, 17 th -18 th century, Status to Contract) -up until this point, religion supported political regime -political status diminished and the ideology of contract (becoming successful through personal work and accomplishments, not nobility) Sociology Established in 1838 -Auguste Comte: the Father of Sociology he coined this term -Harriet Martineau (English; 1840s): stratification ideology -pioneer in observational research methods -studied US vs. British stratification systems: she claimed it was very hard to climb the stratification system (from humble beginnings to power) in Britain than in the US -women’s rights and gender inequality -Herbert Spencer (English; 1850s): social philosopher -Social Darwinism: survival of the fittest; society as a biological organism *-Karl Marx (German/English; 1850): social philosopher
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-wrote about the two social classes: bourgeoisie (owners of production; capitalists; <1%) vs. proletariat (employees); occur in agrarian environments -he believed that the only element in determining class is how much you own in relationship to the means of production -in a capitalist society, he says the proletariat class will revolt against the bourgeoisie *-Emile Durkheim (French; 1890s) -Made advances in empirical/quantitative research methods -First one to put numbers to sociology -1895 study of suicide; looked at suicide as a result of social conditions, not an individual act. -Three types of suicides are:
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1 17 08 - Sociology -The systematic and objective study of...

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