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Study Guide – Exam 3.docx - Study Guide – Exam 3 Innate...

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Study Guide – Exam 3Innate Immunity– Part 1Innate– definitions, when it becomes presentFirst two lines of defense in the body; becomes present at birthExternal and Internal body defenseso1stlayer is external: skin and mucous membraneo2ndis internal: protective cells, blood borne chemicals, and processes thatinactive or kill invaderso(1st)Skin – layers (Cells involved in the different layers and their purpose)1)Epidermis: first layer of skin; microorganisms attached to skin surfaceusually sloughed off with flakes of dead cellsPhagocytic cells =dendritic cells: extend and surround cells, forminterceptive network for invaders, nonspecific phagocytes, informadaptive immunity there is an invader2) Dermis: deep layer of skin; dermal cells secrete antimicrobial peptidesGlands: sweat glands secrete salt, sebum, antimicrobial peptides, andlysozyme (ALL THESE secretions together make skin inhospitable toMOST microorganisms)Antimicrobial peptides: (defensins)o+charged chains of 20-50 amino acids that act againstmicrosoDermcidins (DCD): secreted by sweat glands; broadspectrum antimicrobials active against many Gram – and +bacteria/fungi; insensitive to low pH and salt (sweat tastestart/tangy and salty); exact mechanism unknownLysozyme: enzyme that destroys cell walls of bacteria by cleavingbondsoBacteria without cell wall that are supposed to have cellwalls: osmotic pressures changeoLeave susceptible to other enzymes within phagocytesSebum: oil that helps keep the skin from breaking or tearing to anextentoContains fatty acids that lower pH of skin’s surface to ~5(acidic)oInhibitory to majority of bacteriaoWhy we aren’t always getting sick from random collisionOther secretions:oStomach acid prevents growth of pathogensoBile inhibitory to pathogensoVaginal secretions’ acidity inhibitsoProstate secretions iron-binding proteins sequester ironoVomiting forcibly removes pathogens
oStaphylococcus epidermisPay attention to definition and bold/underlined wordsSkin micro, normal flora on all humansFinds skin a suitable environment for growth/reproductionFound in crevices around hairs and ducts of glandsUSUALLY nonpathogenic:opportunistic: ingrown hairs and acneo(1st)Mucus MembraneWhere they are found and their purposeCover all body cavities that are open to outside environmentHow they help in innate***Nonspecific and limit infection both chemically and physicallyLayers and cells within (purposes, definitions, where found)Epithelium (important) andCT layer (not important)o1) Epithelium (less efficient barrier)Physical actionsStem cells of epithelium produce BOTH:Goblet cells: secrete mucus that trapsbacteria and pathogensCiliated columnar cells: propel mucus andtrapped pathogens awayChemical actions(secretions): antimicrobialpeptides =defensins;lysozymes: in nasal mucosaand lacrimal ductsoNormal microbiota (purpose in innate, how they work)Skin and MM home to variety of fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc, AKA normal

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Term
Spring
Professor
Dr.VinodK.AnandPh.D.

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