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Unformatted text preview: Allison Adolf Assignment 5 The terrorist group that I chose to talk about is Boko Haram. Boko Haram, by name of Jamāʿat Ahl alSunna lil-Daʿawah wa al-Jihād (Arabic: “Association of the People of the Sunnah for Preaching and Jihad”), Islamic movement, was founded in 2002 by Muhammed Yusuf in northeastern Nigeria. Since 2009 the group has carried out assassinations and large-scale acts of violence in that country. The group’s initial proclaimed intent was to uproot the corruption and injustice in Nigeria, which it blamed on Western influences, and to impose Sharīʿah, or Islamic law. Later the group vowed to avenge the deaths of Yusuf and other group members, who were killed by security forces in 2009. Mohammed Yusuf founded the sect that became known as Boko Haram in 2002 in Maiduguri, the capital of the northeastern state of Borno. He established a religious school that attracted poor Muslim families from across Nigeria and neighboring countries. The center had the political goal of creating an Islamic state and became a recruiting ground for jihadis. By denouncing the police and state corruption, Yusuf attracted followers from unemployed youth. It has been speculated that the reason Yusuf founded Boko Haram was that he saw an opportunity to exploit public outrage at government corruption by linking it to Western influence in governance. He is reported to have used the existing infrastructure in Borno of the Izala Society which is a popular conservative Islamic sect, to recruit members, before breaking away to form his own group. The Izala were originally welcomed into government, along with people sympathetic to Yusuf. Boko Haram conducted its operations peacefully during the first seven years of its existence. The government repeatedly ignored warnings about the increasingly violent character of the organization. The Council of Ulama advised the government and the Nigerian Television Authority not to broadcast Yusuf's preaching, but their warnings were ignored. Yusuf's arrest made him seem like a hero. Borno's Deputy Governor Alhaji Dibal claimed that al-Qaeda had ties with Boko Haram, but broke them when they decided that Yusuf was an unreliable person. (History) Evidence suggests that Boko Haram has been very effective in using Islamic ideology to recruit, organize and sustain its fight against the state. Boko Haram ideology is a spillover from the Sunni-Salafi doctrine that the "temporal proximity to Prophet Mohammad is associated with the truest form of Islam''. On the other hand, contrasting approaches to returning to this original way of practicing Islam has given rise to Salafi jihadis that believe in the use of violence, even against other Muslims. Victims of this approach include Salafi purists and activists who do not promote violence. Boko Haram is associated with the Sunni-Salafi jihadis who call for the use of violence to ensure a return to the original form of Islam, and the rejection of everything deemed un-Islamic. Thus, Boko Haram's ideological propaganda for recruitment has hinged on the principle of rejecting western civilization and building a society based on Islamic values and structured around the immediate establishment of an Islamic state. (Ideology) They were many incidences that occurred because of the terrorist group Boko Haram. Boko Haram's attacks consist of suicide bombers as well as conventional armed assaults on both civilian and military targets. There is no doubt that the suppression operation of 2009, and the killing of Muhammad Yusuf by Nigerian security forces in July of that year, was a turning point for Boko Haram. In September 2010 Boko Haram carried out a prison break (said to have released some 700 prisoners) and the group began operations again. Its major operations since that time can be divided into the following attack categories: 1) military (three operations); 2) police (at least 16 operations); 3) teachers/university (five operations); 4) banks and markets (two operations); 5) carrying out al-amr bi-l-ma`ruf attacks on beer drinkers, card- players, etc. (at least five operations); 6) attacks on Christian preachers and churches (at least three operations); and 7) targeted assassinations (at least five major operations). Some examples that are included in the missions carries out by this group are The targeted assassinations which involved political figures, such as Abba Anas bin `Umar (killed in May 2011), the brother of the Shehu of Borno, and secular opposition figures (Modu Fannami Godio, killed in January 2011), but also clerics such as Bashir Kashara, a well-known Wahhabi figure (killed in October 2010), Ibrahim Ahmad Abdullahi, a non-violent preacher (killed in March 2011), and Ibrahim Birkuti, a well-known popular preacher who challenged Boko Haram (killed in June 2011). The shootings of these prominent clerics seem to be in accord with Boko Haram’s agenda with regard to Islam. Boko Haram transitioned toward the use of suicide attacks, starting with the attack on the police General Headquarters in Abuja on June 16, 2011 and then culminating with the attack on the UN headquarters, also in Abuja, on August 26, 2011.8 Other than alShabab in Somalia and to some extent al-Qa`ida in the Islamic Maghreb, no other African radical Muslim group has used suicide attacks. (Tactics) By June 2013 the president of the country officially declared Boko Haram a terrorist group and banned it under Nigerian law, which meant that group members and anyone caught aiding them would be prosecuted under the country’s Terrorism Prevention Act. The new legal designation was expected to make it easier for authorities to prosecute members of the group legally. However, Boko Haram’s attacks persisted into 2014, particularly in the northeast, as the group raided villages and terrorized and murdered civilians with increasing frequency. The group also killed hundreds of people by detonating bombs in large towns and cities, including Abuja. Boko Haram continued to target schools, such as in the February attack on a college in Yobe state where some 50 male students were killed, and the college was virtually destroyed. The group drew worldwide condemnation after it perpetrated a mass kidnapping of more than 275 girls from a boarding school in Chibok in Borno state in April, which generated an increase in offers of international assistance to Nigeria as the country attempted to quell Boko Haram’s acts of terror. In May the United Nations Security Council imposed sanctions on individuals in Boko Haram, freezing assets and issuing travel bans and an arms embargo. However, there was no luck in limiting their operations. The group continued its attacks and expanded the territory it occupied. In August 2014 Boko Haram declared the area under its control to be an Islamic state. The March 2015 general election was won by Buhari, who had vowed to remove inefficiency and corruption in the military. On 9 September 2015, the Director of Information at the Defense Headquarters, Colonel Rabe Abubakar announced that all known Boko Haram camps and cells had been destroyed, and that the group was so weakened that they could no longer hold any territory. Buhari later reiterated in December 2015 that Boko Haram was "technically defeated" and declared in December 2016 that the group had been entirely ousted from its last stronghold of Sambisa Forest. However, their attacks still carried on. There were a few attacks in 2016. One example is at least 86 people were killed and at least 62 more injured in an attack by Boko Haram militants on Dalori Village which is located 4 kilometers from Maiduguri, Nigeria. The Nigerian Army was unable to fight the militants until reinforcements arrived, causing Boko Haram to retreat. In 2017, UNICEF reported an increase in child suicide bombers with 27 incidents occurring in the first three months of 2017 in Nigeria, Niger, Cameroon and Chad, compared to 30 in the entire previous year, 56 in 2015 and 4 in 2014. Also in 2018, a Boko Haram attack on the outskirts of Maiduguri resulted in the death of 18 people and another 84 wounded. This attack came just days after the government of Nigeria claimed there was a ceasefire with Boko Haram. The attack happened in the villages of Bale Shuwa and Bale Kura, close to both Maiduguri and the city's military camp. (Now) Citation Boko Haram. (2019). In Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved from Boko Haram. (2018). In P. Lagasse, & Columbia University, The Columbia encyclopedia (8th ed.). New York, NY: Columbia University Press. Retrieved from ? url= Elkaim, Z. (2012). (Rep.). International Institute for Counter-Terrorism (ICT). Retrieved from Walker, A. (2012). (Rep.). US Institute of Peace. Retrieved from ...
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  • Winter '17
  • Carla Lewandowski
  • Islam, Muhammed Yusuf

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