ASTHMA2Asthma is one of the obstructive lung diseases that cause airway obstruction and makes breathing difficult. Asthma is a respiratory disease that can have an effect on people of various age ranges. It is a common health problem in the United States affecting over 26 million (1 in 13)Americans (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2018). According to Asthma and Allergy Foundation of America (2018), asthma is more prevalent in children than adults based ondata from CDC which indicates that 8.4% of children and 7.6% of adults have asthma. There are various risk factors linked to asthma including onset associated, tobacco smoke, levels of allergen exposure, obesity, exposure to air pollution, and recurring respiratory tract viral infections. Another link associated with asthma is the possibility of a hereditary disorder being evident in genes that are linked to asthma. Asthma complications can be sudden; therefore, it is important for an advanced practice nurse to be aware of its symptoms and appropriate immediatetreatments. Pathophysiological of acute and chronic asthmaThe pathophysiology of asthma involves many cells and cellular elements that cause persistent bronchial mucosa inflammation and airways hyperresponsiveness. There are many cells involved in the cellular element of asthma including the helper 2 lymphocytes, eosinophils, neutrophils, and basophils (Huether & McCance, 2017). The onset of a chronic asthmatic attack is triggered by the exposure of airway epithelial in sensitized individuals to antigen. Such exposures result in innate and adaptive immune responses. When a sensitized individual’s bronchial mucosa is exposed to an antigen, the dendritic cells become activated and present the detected antigen to T-helper cells. This consequently causes the T-helper cells to go through a process to become Th2 cells that release inflammatory interleukins and cytokines that cause the activation of plasma cells. (Huether & McCance, 2017).
ASTHMA3Plasma cells activation triggers the production of antigen-specific IgE that become attached to mast cells surface. When inflammatory mediators are aligned with the respiratory