14 Survey of Biomolecules-Lipids

Organic Chemistry: Structure and Function

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1 Survey of Biomolecules Part II: Lipids Lecture Supplement: Take one handout from the stage
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2 ound mostly in fatty tissues, membranes, and other nonpolar biological structure onpolar: hydrophobic (“water hating”) or lipophilic (“fat loving”) olar: hydrophilic (“water loving”) or lipophobic (“fat hating”) Lipids Definitions Lipid (Greek: lipos , fat): organic molecule of biological origin that is insoluble in water and soluble in nonpolar solvents (CH 2 Cl 2 , CH 3 CH 2 OCH 2 CH 3 , etc.) Example : A phospholipid O O O O O P O O OCH 2 CH 2 NH 3 Lipid solubility properties due to large nonpolar regions
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3 Lipids Categories General Categories of Lipids Fatty acids Waxes Triacylglycerols Phospholipids Prostaglandins Steroids Lipophilic vitamins Terpenes Produced mostly by plants Not discussed in Chem 14C
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4 Fatty Acids y acid : unbranched carboxylic acid t have even number of carbons: two carbons added at a time during biosynthesi 0 carbons most common t biologically-important fatty acids have 18 carbons: stearic, oleic, and linoleic ac n biological function: component of other lipids gorized by C=C in chain: saturated (no C=C) or unsaturated (one or more C=C) Saturated fatty acids Lauric acid (12 C) Myristic acid (14 C) Palmitic acid (16 C) Stearic acid (18 C) Arachidic acid (20 C) OH O OH O OH O OH O OH O
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5 Fatty Acids Monounsaturated : contains one C=C Polyunsaturated : contains more than one C=C Cis C=C much more common than trans C=C OH O Oleic acid (C 18 ) OH O Linoleic acid (C 18 ) OH O Linolenic acid (C 18 ) Unsaturated fatty acids Some important unsaturated fatty acids Arachidonic acid (C 20 ) OH O C C C C H H C C H C C H Cis alkene Common in fatty acids Trans alkene Rare in fatty acids
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6 Waxes
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