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31_Alcoholism_2005 - ISS 210 Dr Handrick Lecture Notes II...

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ISS 210 Dr. Handrick Lecture Notes II. Disease Concept of Alcoholism A. Predisposing Factors. Jellinek (1952) identified cultural differences in types of alcoholism and distinguished psychological from physiological dependencies. 1. Psychological motivated use of alcohol is probably not a disease in the sense of an addiction. a) Alpha or “problem drinking” reflects a psychological dependence on alcohol to weather a crisis. Progressive but not inevitably addictive. Alcohol as a means of coping with stress. b) Epsilon or “binge drinking ” is similar to Alpha. Excessive drinking for a brief period followed by abstinence. Characteristic of the drinking pattern at Grassy Narrows. c) Comments (1) Reinforcement theory: alcohol removes the pain of failing to meet basic psychological needs or reduction of stress as in the drinking group. (2) Studies also show, however, that persons are depressed because they drink, not vice versa. 2. Physiological alcohol addictions a) Gamma is characterized by a progression from a psychological to a physiological dependence on alcohol leading to withdrawal symptoms and a loss of control of drinking. Characteristic of alcoholism in the US.
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