Notes-1.docx - 8/27/2018 Reconstruction: 1863-1877 David...

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8/27/2018Reconstruction: 1863-1877David Golightly Harris (1821-1875)-Did not believe African Americans would work much if they were free-South turned upside down-Slave owners predicted that emancipation would mean economic downfallCarl Schurz (1829-1906)-African Americans would need land of their own, voting rights, etc to protect their rights-discovered that the end of the war did not mean peace, instead the U.S. entered reconstruction –defined the forming meaning of slaves-Years of reconstruction are years of struggle and what emancipation really meansPresident Lincolns Plan – EasyRepublican Congress’s Plan – HarshLand and LaborCompulsory Free Labor-Everyone must enter into a contractEx-Slaveowners-Must provide housing, food, medical care, & wages-no whippingFreedman (& women)-required to be in contract, obedient, subservient, and work diligentlyAccess to LandSherman’s Land-40k freedman on 400,000 acres in SCFreedman’s Bureau (March 1865)
-meant to distribute food and clothing to the destitutePlaces 10,000 freedman on 40-acre plotsThe African American Quest for AutonomyAndrew Johnson – 1865-1868-Has all the power in the world between April and December-Born in Rawley NC-Taught himself to read, ambitious-Moves to Tennessee and becomes a tailor, builds a fortune with a bunch of land-builds a political reputation attacking really rich plantation owners-really racist, doesn’t like republicansPresidential ReconstructionCitizens states had to:-renounce secession-Ratify the 13thamendment-abolished slavery-became part of the constitution in December 1865All land was to be returned to pardoned ex-confederatesWhite Southern Resistance 1865Black codes-Vagrancy-No citizenship rightsJury service/vote-intermarriage-LaborState elections – confederates to congress
Johnson vetoes the Freedmans Bureau renewal billCivil Rights Act of 1866 – against black codes (makes them illegal)-End of legal discrimination in state lawsAndrew Johnson vs. Congress14thamendment-makes native-born blacks’ citizens-guarantees all citizens “equal protection of the laws”-peoples rights under the lawWhite Supremacist Riots 1866New Orleans-Black suffrage conventions-34 deadMemphis-White mobs targeting black neighborhoods1866 Midterm ElectionsRadical Reconstruction 1867-1877Military Reconstruction Act 1867 – do over of all of reconstruction-formalize it into 5 districts-union generals oversee and make sure to take the right steps for the union-Radicals want to get African Americans to vote, because without them voting they’re veryvulnerable15thamendment – gives everyone the right to vote besides women-meant to protect the black communitySouthern Republicans-African Americans
-Carpet baggers – northerner who moved south-Scalawags – southerners who had opposed secession; usually former unionistsRepublican Rule-Education -state-funded free public education-civil Rights – no segregation in public transportation-Economic development – diversified economy – railroad subsidiesReconstruction collapses

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Term
Spring
Professor
Marshall
Tags
Reconstruction, Plessy v Ferguson, Trade union, American Federation of Labor, Industrial unionism

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