Tests & MeasurementsExam I Study GuideNote this Study Guide is for both Quizzes and ExamChapter One1.Be familiar with the following figures/events and the corresponding contributions to the field of Testing (some of this is from your notes):Charles Darwin- a.Thesis- evolution (traits and attributes are selected and passed down between generations as organisms adapt)b.Led to an interested in and emphasis on individual differences- what most tests examine Frances Galtona.Cousin to Charles Darwin b.first person to devise set of tools for assessing individual differences in his anthropometric lab (height, strength, how steady your hands are)James Cattella.Worked on the first “mental test”b.Founder of Psychological Corporation in the early 1920, leading publishers of tests throughout the world Alfred Binet a.1905- started using tools to test schoolchildren in Parisian who were notpreforming as well as otherb.Minister of Public Instructionc.Partner- Theodore Simon d.Work Came to US in 1916 to Lewis Terman e.Most Commonly used modern intelligence tests (Standford-Binet)Robert Yerkesa.Developed both the Army Alpha/Beta test b.Yerkes-Dodson Law suggests that there is relationship between arousal levels and performance c.believed that the tests measured native intelligence, later findings revealed that education, training, and acculturation played an important role in performance.Army Alpha/Beta Tests (what was the difference between these?) a.Alpha-group-administeredtestdeveloped by Robert Yerkes and six others in order to evaluate the many U.S. military recruits during World War I. It was first introduced in 1917 due to a demand for a systematic method of evaluating the intellectual and emotional functioning of soldiers. determine whether draftees could read English, but also to evaluate soldiers
so that they could be assigned to tasks or training in alignment with their abilities.b.Beta-was a mode of cognitive/intellectualtestingthat theArmyused before and during WWI to evaluate recruits who were illiterate, unschooled, or non-English speaking. Thistestwas designed to measure "verbal ability, numerical ability, ability to follow directions, and knowledge of information." For men with limited literacy who were unable to respond to the written test. The instructions for the test were provided using pictures and other symbols, and it tested using things like mazes, identification of patterns, and picture completion.2.Be familiar with the types of tests and what they measure (Table. 1.1). a.Achievement- tests previous learning in specific area i.Closed high school placement testb.Aptitude- potential for leaning or future performancei.Wilson Driver Selection Testc.Personality- asses an individual’s unique and stable set of characteristics traits or attitudes or behaviori.Aggression Questionnaired.Neuropsychological- measures the relationship between the brain and behavior i.Boston Name testinge.