Protein Study Questions - Protein Study Questions Nitrogen...

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Protein Study Questions Nitrogen cycle What is the nitrogen cycle? How does it link ecology and nutrition? Name a few of the paths nitrogen takes. Nitrogen is incorporated in body proteins of plants and animals, and returned to the soil via death and decomposition and in feces and urine. Soil bacteria decompose these and changes nitrogen’s chemical form. Some nitrogen is released from soil into the atmosphere, and some is returned by lightning and precipitation. Nitrogen-fixing bacteria in nodules on the roots of legumes pull nitrogen from the air and put it into a chemical form useful to plants. Legumes utilize these, and all plants pull nitrogen from soil, incorporating it into proteins. These proteins remain in the plant or are ingested by animals. Structure What is protein made of? How many amino acids are found in nature? Proteins are composed of amino acids. There are twenty amino acids found in nature. Amino acids (AAs) What chemical elements are found in all amino acids? They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and, in a few cases, sulfur. Which one is unique to amino acids amongst the macronutrients? Nitrogen is the one unique to amino acids. What are the chemical groups on an amino acid? The chemical groups on an amino acid are the amines (NH2 chemical group) and the carboxyls (COOH chemical group) What do we call the bond that joins amino acids? The bonds that join amino acids together are known as peptide bonds. Peptides What are peptides? What are they made from? A peptide is a short chain of amino acids.
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Name a peptide. Insulin Proteins How many amino acids can be found in a protein? Very long chains of amino acids, hundreds or even thousands of units can be found in proteins. How does the cell know the proper sequence of amino acids when making a protein? What do genes have to do with proteins? Why do we say "one gene, one protein?" The proper sequence of amino acids is found in our DNA which has the genes that specify proteins. Each gene is a recipe for a protein; our DNA is the cookbook. How many proteins does the human body have? Altogether, the human body has tens of thousands of proteins, all cranking away on our behalf. Complex structures What determines the structure of a protein? Some amino acid chains attract each other, some repel each other, and they do so to varying degrees. These attractions and repulsions create tensions within the strand of amino acids, causing it to assume certain configurations. What forms may a protein molecule take? What effect does structure have on function? The coil is one of the common forms proteins assume. Proteins complicate themselves even more, and the secondary structure such as the coil, starts folding itself up into a tertiary layer of organization. This is when the protein becomes fully functional, because it now has the right parts exposed, and this structure makes it all work. Digestion and absorption
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course NUTRI SCI 120 taught by Professor Anderson during the Spring '08 term at University of Wisconsin.

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Protein Study Questions - Protein Study Questions Nitrogen...

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