Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates/ Alcohol I. Carbohydrates A....

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Carbohydrates/ Alcohol I. Carbohydrates A. Definition: an essential nutrient provided almost entirely by plant foods and is the major source of energy and fiber B. Two Main Groups 1. Simple CHO a. primarily sugars and naturally found in fruits and milk b. c. 2. Complex CHO a. primarily starch and cellulose (fiber) and found in breads, vegetables and cereals C. Historical Perspective 1. Consumption of starch/fiber has decreased and sugar has increased since 1900 D. Chemical Composition 1. Composed of 3 elements: C-H-O E. Classification of Three Sub-Groups 1. Monosaccharides ____________________________ a. simplest form of CHO b. 3 monosaccharides important in nutrition 1) glucose 2) fructose 3) galactose c. all contain 6 atoms C, 12 atoms H, and 6 atoms O but differ in arrangement of atoms
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1) glucose a) dextrose or blood sugar, found in fruits, vegetables and honey ________________________ b) main source of energy for the CNS (brain and spinal cord) c) body tries to keep at least 90 mg glucose/deciliter of blood (fasting blood sugar) (1) if the glucose in the blood > 200 mg/dl = HYPERGLYCEMIA This occurs when the hormone, insulin, is not produced fast enough by the pancreas to help the cells remove glucose from the blood. The kidneys can’t keep up and glucose spills into the urine. The loss of glucose produces more urine; more urination = more thirst.
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This note was uploaded on 03/29/2008 for the course NUTR 251 taught by Professor Brendaeissenstat during the Summer '08 term at Pennsylvania State University, University Park.

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Carbohydrates - Carbohydrates/ Alcohol I. Carbohydrates A....

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