Chapter 62 Notes.docx - Chapter 62 Management of Patients With Burn Injury Definitions autograft a graft derived from one part of a patient\u2019s body and

Chapter 62 Notes.docx - Chapter 62 Management of Patients...

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Chapter 62: Management of Patients With Burn Injury Definitions: autograft: a graft derived from one part of a patient’s body and used on another part of that same patient’s body carboxyhemoglobin: a compound of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin, formed in the blood with exposure to carbon monoxide collagen: a protein present in skin, tendon, bone, cartilage, and connective tissue contracture: shrinkage of burn scar through collagen maturation débridement: removal of foreign material and devitalized tissue until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed donor site: the area from which skin is taken to provide a skin graft for another part of the body eschar: devitalized tissue resulting from a burn or wound escharotomy: a linear excision made through eschar to release constriction of underlying tissue excision: surgical removal of tissue fasciotomy: an incision made through the fascia to release constriction of underlying muscle homograft: a graft transferred from one human (living or cadaveric) to another human; also called allograft hydrotherapy: cleansing of wounds through the use of bath, shower, shower cart table, or immersion Nikolsky’s sign: rubbing of the epidermis, resulting in exfoliation or separation from the dermal layer xenograft: a graft obtained from an animal of a species other than that of the recipient (e.g., pigskin); also called heterograft Overview of Burn Injury Incidence Of those people admitted to burn centers, 68% had injuries that occurred at home, 10% had industry related injuries, 5% had recreationally related injuries, and the remaining 17% had injuries from other sources. Of all these injuries, 44% were flame related, 33% were scald injuries, 9% were from direct source contact, 4% were electrical, 3% were chemical, 1% were inhalation only, and the remaining were from unspecified or miscellaneous categories Men have more than twice the incidence of burn injury than women; for both men and women, the most frequent age group for burns is between 20 and 30 years In the United States, the race and ethnicity of patients treated in burn centers is as follows: 60% Caucasian, 19% African American, 15% Hispanic, 2% Asian American, 0.7% Native American, and 3% identified as “other” The National Fire Protection Association reported 3,120 fire fatalities in 2010. This translates to one fire death every 169 minutes and fire injury every 30 minutes in 2010 The overall mortality rate for all total body surface area (TBSA) burns is 3.9%, with the incidence of fatality increasing as burn size increases One systematic review which examined the predictors of mortality in adult burn patients, reported an overall mortality rate of 13.9%. The strongest predictors for mortality in burn injuries included increased percent of TBSA burned, presence of inhalation injury, and increased age.
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