100%(7)7 out of 7 people found this document helpful
This preview shows page 1 - 2 out of 20 pages.
Chapter 62: Management of Patients With Burn InjuryDefinitions:autograft:a graft derived from one part of a patient’s body and used on another part of that samepatient’s bodycarboxyhemoglobin:a compound of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin, formed in the blood with exposure to carbon monoxidecollagen:a protein present in skin, tendon, bone, cartilage, and connective tissuecontracture:shrinkage of burn scar through collagen maturationdébridement:removal of foreign material and devitalized tissue until surrounding healthy tissueis exposeddonor site:the area from which skin is taken to provide a skin graft for another part of the bodyeschar:devitalized tissue resulting from a burn or woundescharotomy:a linear excision made through eschar to release constriction of underlying tissueexcision:surgical removal of tissuefasciotomy:an incision made through the fascia to release constriction of underlying musclehomograft:a graft transferred from one human (living or cadaveric) to another human; also called allografthydrotherapy:cleansing of wounds through the use of bath, shower, shower cart table, or immersionNikolsky’s sign:rubbing of the epidermis, resulting in exfoliation or separation from the dermal layerxenograft:a graft obtained from an animal of a species other than that of the recipient (e.g., pigskin); also called heterograftOverview of Burn InjuryIncidenceOf those people admitted to burn centers, 68% had injuries that occurred at home, 10% had industry related injuries, 5% had recreationally related injuries, and the remaining 17% had injuries from other sources. Of all these injuries, 44% were flame related, 33% were scald injuries, 9% were from direct source contact, 4% were electrical, 3% were chemical, 1% were inhalation only, and the remaining were from unspecified or miscellaneous categories Men have more than twice the incidence of burn injury than women; for both men and women, the most frequent age group for burns is between 20 and 30 years In the United States, the race and ethnicity of patients treated in burn centers is as follows: 60% Caucasian, 19% African American, 15% Hispanic, 2% Asian American, 0.7% Native American, and 3% identified as “other” The National Fire Protection Association reported 3,120 fire fatalities in 2010. This translates to one fire death every 169 minutes and fire injury every 30 minutes in 2010 The overall mortality rate for all total body surface area (TBSA) burns is 3.9%, with the incidence of fatality increasing as burn size increases One systematic review which examined the predictors of mortality in adult burn patients, reported an overall mortality rate of 13.9%. The strongest predictors for mortality in burn injuries included increased percent of TBSA burned, presence of inhalation injury, and increased age.