Classical Period (1750–1825) Antonio Vivaldi play "La Primavera" (Spring) from The Four Seasons, mvt. 1 (Allegro) Antonio Vivaldi Born: 1678 Died: 1741 Period: Baroque Country: Italy Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart play Piano Concerto in A Major, K. 488, mvt. 1 (Allegro) Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Born: 1756 Died: 1791 Period: Classical Country: Austria Listening Guide play String Quartet No. 17 in F Major, Op. 17, No. 2, Hob. III:26, mvt. 1 (Moderato) Franz Joseph Haydn Born: 1732 Died: 1809 Period: Classical Country: Austria Revolution in Thought European intellectuals of the 18th century were the first to consider themselves fully free from the restrictions of the Middle Ages. They spoke of themselves as living in an Age of Enlightenment, an Age of Reason. A strong belief in God remained, but people increasingly believed in human control over a reasonable world, in the marvelous machine of a universe they understood. God was no longer conceptualized as the awesome Father and Judge but rather as the cosmic keeper of the seasons and rhythms of nature. This is not to say that everyone felt this way, as many intellectuals and artists still dismissed those who had absolute trust in reason as naive or hypocritical. Nevertheless, this was the time in which science and rational thought took over from faith as the primary method with which to engage the world. Great philosophical minds influenced the Age of Enlightenment. In France, Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712–1778) and Voltaire (François-Marie Arouet; 1694–1778), among others, wrote about the rights of the individual, the essential dignity of humankind, and the need for a
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