1Stepwise Management of AsthmaRebecca GoodwinWalden UniversityNURS 6521N, Section 38, Advanced PharmacologyDecember 23, 2018
2Stepwise Management of AsthmaAsthma is a chronic inflammatory condition that causes narrowing and hyperresponsiveness of the airway (Arcangelo, Peterson, Wilbur, & Reinhold, 2017). Asthma affects millions of adults and children worldwide, and adverse outcomes occur if asthma is not appropriately managed. The goal of treating asthma is to prevent symptoms and preserve pulmonary functions as near to normal as possible (Arcangelo et al., 2017). Guidelines on how to manage and treat asthma patients have been established to help providers in developing action plans for patients. The purpose of this paper is to describe long-term control and quick-relief treatment options for asthma, the impact medications have on patients, discuss the stepwise approach to management, and how stepwise guidance helps clinicians and patients gain and maintain control of asthma.Long-Term Asthma Control and Impact of MedicationsLong-term medications are prescribed to patients to achieve and maintain control of asthma (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, 2007). Long-term control medications includeinhaled corticosteroids (ICSs), mast cell stabilizers, immunomodulators, leukotriene modifiers, long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonists (LABAs), and methylxanthines (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, 2007). All individuals with persistent asthma need an ICS as it is the most potentand effective long-term control medication that improves symptoms and quality of life (Arcangelo et al., 2017; National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, 2007). Low doses generally achieve control over symptoms; however, the risk of adverse effects rises as the dose increases (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, 2007). LABAs, such as salmeterol or formoterol, relaxairway smooth muscle and are added to ICSs when asthma is not well controlled (National Heart Lung and Blood Institute, 2007). Oral candidiasis and dysphonia are possible adverse reactions
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