Human Agency in Geomorphology (Reader I: 159‐170, 193‐195; Reader II:

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HumanAgencyinGeomorphology ( ReaderI:159‐170,193‐195;ReaderII:Chapter19 (relevantparts:“EnvironmentalImpactofMining”) ; and fivearticles(relevantparts) onthewebsite: Appalachia Mountain mining,land_subsidence,Maya Civilizationdisappearance,Earthquake, Soil_conservation) 1)Introduction 2)landformsproducedbyexcavation 3)Acceleratedsedimentation 4)Groundsubsidence 5)Thehumanimpactonseismicity
1)Introduction Landformsoftheeartharetheresultoftheinterplay betweeninternal(endogenetic)processesandsurface (exogenetic)processes. Endogenetic processes :igneousactivity, mountainbuilding,andtheupliftand depressionofextensiveareasofthe surface. Exogenetic processes :drivenbygravity,solarradiation, andclimate,etc.
The human creates landforms and modify the operation of natural geomorphological processes. The range of human impact on both forms and process is considerable. There is very few human activity, which do not directly and indirect create landforms. Anthropogenicprocesses: (A)Direct (i)Construction Construction in Las Vegas
(ii)Excavation (iii)Hydrologicalinterference
(iv)Farming (V)War
(B)Indirect (i)Accelerationoferosionandsedimentation
(ii)Subsidence (iii)Slopefailure (iv)Earthquakegeneration Theseindirectandinadvertentmodificationsofprocessand formarethemostcrucialaspectofanthropogeo‐morphology.
2)Landformsproducedbyexcavation The most important cause of excavation is mineral extraction (in particular, the strip mining produces the environmental devastating), which exceeds in quantity and intensity of all other forms of man‐made land destruction.
Slover, CA
Case: Coal Mining in the Appalachia Mountain area
Case: Coal Mining in the Appalachia Mountain area
It is sometime difficult in individual cases to decide whether depressions are the results of human intervention when periglacial depressions are evident in the same area.
3)Acceleratedsedimentation Someofmajorhumanactivities: (i)Mining (forinstance,coalminingintheAppalanchia Mountains,hydraulicminingintheSierraNevada mountains) Loe Pool Lake (S.-W. U.K.)