parts of a computer system.ppt - CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO...

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CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER SYSTEM
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COMPUTER CONCEPTS This chapter will cover the following topics: Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure The Computer System How Computers Represent Data The CPU and Primary Storage Microprocessors and Processing Power Multiple Processors and Parallel Processing Storage Input, and Output Technology Secondary Storage Technology Input and Output Devices Categories of Computers and Computer Systems Computer Software Programming Languange
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Computer Hardware and Information Technology Infrastructure Components of IT infrastructure consist of software, data, and networks – require computer hardware for their storage or operation.
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The Computer System Computer system consists of (see Figure 0.1): central processing unit (CPU) primary storage secondary storage input devices output devices Communications devices.
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Figure 0.1: Hardware Component of Computer Systems Communication Devices Secondary Storage - Magnetic disk Central Processing Unit (CPU) Primary Storage Input Devices - Keyboard Output Devices - Printers Buses
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The System Unit What are common components inside the system unit? Memory Adapter cards Sound card Video card Ports Drive bays Power supply power supply ports drive bays processor memory sound card video card Processor
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The System Unit What is the motherboard ? Main circuit board in system unit Contains adapter cards, processor chips, and memory chips Also called system board
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THE SYSTEM UNIT The CPU manipulates raw data into more useful form and controls the other parts of the computer system. Primary storage temporarily stores data and program instructions during processing. Secondary storage devices store data and programs when they are not being used in processing.
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THE SYSTEM UNIT Input devices convert data and instructions into electronic form for input into the computer. Output devices convert electronic data produced by the computer system and display them in a form that people can understand. Communication devices provide connections between the computer and communications networks.
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THE SYSTEM UNIT Buses are circuitry paths for transmitting data and signals among the parts of the computer system.
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How Computers Represent Data All symbols, pictures or words must be reduced to a string of binary digits. A binary digit is called a bit and represents either a 0 or a 1. These are the only digits in the binary or base 2, number system used by computers. A string of eight bits used to store one number or character in a computer system is called a byte (see Figure 0.2).
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HOW COMPUTERS REPRESENT DATA One byte for character A 01000001 The computer representation in ASCII for the name Alice is 01000001 A 01001100 L 01001001 I 01000011 C 01000101 E
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HOW COMPUTERS REPRESENT DATA To represent the numbers 0 through 9 and the letters a through z and A through Z ,
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