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McMahonFORMULATION AND DISSOLUTION OF KIDNEY STONESHailey McMahonInstructor BommareddyCHM2046L4 November 20171
McMahonINTRODUCTIONKidney stones are salt deposits that form in the urinary tract and inside the kidneys. They are caused by a multitude of factors, such as obesity, high protein, salt, and sugar diet, family/personal medical history, and digestive diseases or surgeries. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 1994 estimated 6.3% of men and 4.1% of women in the United States experience at least one kidney stone in their lifetime, with the likelihood of recurrence over 50% between 5-10 years after first stone (Stamatelou, 2003). There are four types of kidney stones, including calcium, uric acid, struvite, and cystine. Calcium stones are among the most common, and can combine with other substances, like oxalate, phosphate, and carbonate (Anderson et al., 2017). The method of dissolving kidney stones is dependent upon the type of stone that forms. In the experiment, calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate were formed so one of the treatments included lemon juice. Lemon juice contains citrate, which prevents calcium from bonding. Another remedy used was apple cider vinegar. It contains citric acid which helps dissolve stones and alkalizes blood and urine to aid in preventing formation of new stones. In the lab, the calcium oxalate stone was formed by combining calcium chloride and sodium oxalate in an aqueous solution. When mixed, calcium oxalate and sodium chloride are produced, and it precipitates while the other stays dissolved in water, respectively. It is considered a metathesis, which is when the two compounds react, the cations and anions of the reactants switch place, forming new products. Calcium phosphate is also a double replacement reaction, where calcium chloride and sodium phosphate combine to form calcium phosphate and sodium nitrate. The objective of the lab was to successively synthesize calcium phosphate and calcium oxalate stones by removing the precipitates from both reactions by centrifugation and vacuum filtration. Then, use the home remedies, lemon juice and apple cider vinegar, to test the 2
McMahonefficacy of dissolution of the stones and calculate the solubility in both remedies at different amounts. It was hypothesized that the home remedies would not effectively dissolve the kidney stones, but the higher quantity of remedy would be more effective than the small amount. METHODSWeek 1The calcium oxalate stone was synthesized by the dissolution of 7.30 g of sodium oxalatein 75 mL of water and 6.06 g of calcium nitrate in 175 mL of water in separate beakers. Once both were completely mixed, they were combined and divided into tubes that were placed in the centrifuge. Excess liquid was poured out of the centrifuge and was ran again. Then, the precipitate was collected from the tubes and placed into a beaker to dry out. The calcium phosphate stone was synthesized by the dissolution of 3.17 g of sodium phosphate in 75 mL of water and 4.76 g of calcium chloride in 175 mL of water. Once they were completely mixed,